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Making connections: relativity and einstein

Because Einstein was able to clearly define how measurements are made (some involve light) and because the speed of light is the same for all observers, the outcomes are spectacularly unexpected. Time varies with observer, energy is stored as increased mass, and more surprises await.

Phet explorations: motion in 2d

Try the new "Ladybug Motion 2D" simulation for the latest updated version. Learn about position, velocity, and acceleration vectors. Move the ball with the mouse or let the simulation move the ball in four types of motion (2 types of linear, simple harmonic, circle).

Motion in 2D

Summary

  • Velocities in two dimensions are added using the same analytical vector techniques, which are rewritten as
    v x = v cos θ size 12{v rSub { size 8{x} } =v"cos"θ} {}
    v y = v sin θ size 12{v rSub { size 8{y} } =v"sin"θ} {}
    v = v x 2 + v y 2 size 12{v= sqrt {v rSub { size 8{x} } rSup { size 8{2} } +v rSub { size 8{y} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
    θ = tan 1 ( v y / v x ) . size 12{θ="tan" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } \( v rSub { size 8{y} } /v rSub { size 8{x} } \) } {}
  • Relative velocity is the velocity of an object as observed from a particular reference frame, and it varies dramatically with reference frame.
  • Relativity is the study of how different observers measure the same phenomenon, particularly when the observers move relative to one another. Classical relativity is limited to situations where speed is less than about 1% of the speed of light (3000 km/s).

Conceptual questions

What frame or frames of reference do you instinctively use when driving a car? When flying in a commercial jet airplane?

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A basketball player dribbling down the court usually keeps his eyes fixed on the players around him. He is moving fast. Why doesn’t he need to keep his eyes on the ball?

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If someone is riding in the back of a pickup truck and throws a softball straight backward, is it possible for the ball to fall straight down as viewed by a person standing at the side of the road? Under what condition would this occur? How would the motion of the ball appear to the person who threw it?

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The hat of a jogger running at constant velocity falls off the back of his head. Draw a sketch showing the path of the hat in the jogger’s frame of reference. Draw its path as viewed by a stationary observer.

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A clod of dirt falls from the bed of a moving truck. It strikes the ground directly below the end of the truck. What is the direction of its velocity relative to the truck just before it hits? Is this the same as the direction of its velocity relative to ground just before it hits? Explain your answers.

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Problems&Exercises

Bryan Allen pedaled a human-powered aircraft across the English Channel from the cliffs of Dover to Cap Gris-Nez on June 12, 1979. (a) He flew for 169 min at an average velocity of 3.53 m/s in a direction 45º size 12{"45º"} {} south of east. What was his total displacement? (b) Allen encountered a headwind averaging 2.00 m/s almost precisely in the opposite direction of his motion relative to the Earth. What was his average velocity relative to the air? (c) What was his total displacement relative to the air mass?

(a) 35 . 8 km size 12{"35" "." 8" km"} {} , 45º size 12{"45º"} {} south of east

(b) 5 . 53 m/s size 12{5 "." "53 m/s"} {} , 45º size 12{"45º"} {} south of east

(c) 56 . 1 km size 12{"56" "." 1" km"} {} , 45º size 12{"45"º} {} south of east

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A seagull flies at a velocity of 9.00 m/s straight into the wind. (a) If it takes the bird 20.0 min to travel 6.00 km relative to the Earth, what is the velocity of the wind? (b) If the bird turns around and flies with the wind, how long will he take to return 6.00 km? (c) Discuss how the wind affects the total round-trip time compared to what it would be with no wind.

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Questions & Answers

what's the period of velocity 4cm/s at displacement 10cm
Andrew Reply
What is physics
LordRalph Reply
the branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. The subject matter of physics includes mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.
Aluko
and the word of matter is anything that have mass and occupied space
Aluko
what is phyices
Aurang Reply
Whats the formula
Okiri Reply
1/v+1/u=1/f
Aluko
what aspect of black body spectrum forced plank to purpose quantization of energy level in its atoms and molicules
Shoaib Reply
a man has created by who?
Angel Reply
What type of experimental evidence indicates that light is a wave
Edeh Reply
double slit experiment
Eric
The S. L. Unit of sound energy is
Chukwuemeka Reply
what's the conversation like?
ENOBONG Reply
some sort of blatherring or mambo jambo you may say
muhammad
I still don't understand what this group is all about oo
ENOBONG
no
uchenna
ufff....this associated with physics ..so u can ask questions related to all topics of physics..
muhammad
what is sound?
Bella
what is upthrust
Mercy Reply
what is upthrust
Olisa
Up thrust is a force
Samuel
upthrust is a upward force that acts vertical in the ground surface.
Rodney
yes rodney's answer z correct
Paul
what is centre of gravity?
Paul
you think the human body could produce such Force
Anthony
what is wave
Bryan Reply
mirobiology
Angel
what is specific latent heat
Omosebi Reply
the total amount of heat energy required to change the physical state of a unit mass of matter without a corresponding change in temperature.
fitzgerald
is there any difference between specific heat and heat capacity.....
muhammad
what wave
Bryan
why medical physics even.we have a specoal branch of science biology for this.
Sahrrr Reply
what is physics
AbleGod Reply
what is the s.i unit for work
Betty Reply
joules
Aaron
Joules
EmmaTk
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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