<< Chapter < Page | Chapter >> Page > |
Just what is the limit? To answer that question, consider the diffraction pattern for a circular aperture, which has a central maximum that is wider and brighter than the maxima surrounding it (similar to a slit) [see [link] (a)]. It can be shown that, for a circular aperture of diameter $D$ , the first minimum in the diffraction pattern occurs at $\theta =1\text{.}\text{22}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\lambda /D$ (providing the aperture is large compared with the wavelength of light, which is the case for most optical instruments). The accepted criterion for determining the diffraction limit to resolution based on this angle was developed by Lord Rayleigh in the 19th century. The Rayleigh criterion for the diffraction limit to resolution states that two images are just resolvable when the center of the diffraction pattern of one is directly over the first minimum of the diffraction pattern of the other . See [link] (b). The first minimum is at an angle of $\theta =1\text{.}\text{22}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\lambda /D$ , so that two point objects are just resolvable if they are separated by the angle
where $\lambda $ is the wavelength of light (or other electromagnetic radiation) and $D$ is the diameter of the aperture, lens, mirror, etc., with which the two objects are observed. In this expression, $\theta $ has units of radians.
All attempts to observe the size and shape of objects are limited by the wavelength of the probe. Even the small wavelength of light prohibits exact precision. When extremely small wavelength probes as with an electron microscope are used, the system is disturbed, still limiting our knowledge, much as making an electrical measurement alters a circuit. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle asserts that this limit is fundamental and inescapable, as we shall see in quantum mechanics.
The primary mirror of the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope has a diameter of 2.40 m. Being in orbit, this telescope avoids the degrading effects of atmospheric distortion on its resolution. (a) What is the angle between two just-resolvable point light sources (perhaps two stars)? Assume an average light wavelength of 550 nm. (b) If these two stars are at the 2 million light year distance of the Andromeda galaxy, how close together can they be and still be resolved? (A light year, or ly, is the distance light travels in 1 year.)
Strategy
The Rayleigh criterion stated in the equation $\theta =1\text{.}\text{22}\frac{\lambda}{D}$ gives the smallest possible angle $\theta $ between point sources, or the best obtainable resolution. Once this angle is found, the distance between stars can be calculated, since we are given how far away they are.
Solution for (a)
The Rayleigh criterion for the minimum resolvable angle is
Notification Switch
Would you like to follow the 'College physics for ap® courses' conversation and receive update notifications?