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Alpha, beta, and gamma

Research begun by people such as New Zealander Ernest Rutherford soon after the discovery of nuclear radiation indicated that different types of rays are emitted. Eventually, three types were distinguished and named alpha α size 12{ left (α right )} {} , beta β size 12{ left (β right )} {} , and gamma γ size 12{ left (γ right )} {} , because, like x-rays, their identities were initially unknown. [link] shows what happens if the rays are passed through a magnetic field. The γ size 12{γ} {} s are unaffected, while the α size 12{γ} {} s and β size 12{β} {} s are deflected in opposite directions, indicating the α size 12{α} {} s are positive, the β size 12{β} {} s negative, and the γ size 12{γ} {} s uncharged. Rutherford used both magnetic and electric fields to show that α size 12{α} {} s have a positive charge twice the magnitude of an electron, or + 2 q e size 12{+2 lline q rSub { size 8{e} } rline } {} . In the process, he found the α size 12{γ} {} s charge to mass ratio to be several thousand times smaller than the electron’s. Later on, Rutherford collected α size 12{γ} {} s from a radioactive source and passed an electric discharge through them, obtaining the spectrum of recently discovered helium gas. Among many important discoveries made by Rutherford and his collaborators was the proof that α size 12{γ} {} radiation is the emission of a helium nucleus . Rutherford won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1908 for his early work. He continued to make important contributions until his death in 1934.

The figure shows north and south poles of a magnet through which three rays labeled as alpha beta and gamma are passed. After passing through a magnetic field the alpha ray is slightly deflected toward the right. The beta ray is deflected toward the left and the gamma ray is not deflected.
Alpha, beta, and gamma rays are passed through a magnetic field on the way to a phosphorescent screen. The α size 12{γ} {} s and β size 12{β} {} s bend in opposite directions, while the γ size 12{γ} {} s are unaffected, indicating a positive charge for α size 12{γ} {} s, negative for β size 12{β} {} s, and neutral for γ size 12{γ} {} s. Consistent results are obtained with electric fields. Collection of the radiation offers further confirmation from the direct measurement of excess charge.

Other researchers had already proved that β size 12{β} {} s are negative and have the same mass and same charge-to-mass ratio as the recently discovered electron. By 1902, it was recognized that β size 12{β} {} radiation is the emission of an electron . Although β size 12{β} {} s are electrons, they do not exist in the nucleus before it decays and are not ejected atomic electrons—the electron is created in the nucleus at the instant of decay.

Since γ size 12{γ} {} s remain unaffected by electric and magnetic fields, it is natural to think they might be photons. Evidence for this grew, but it was not until 1914 that this was proved by Rutherford and collaborators. By scattering γ size 12{γ} {} radiation from a crystal and observing interference, they demonstrated that γ size 12{γ} {} radiation is the emission of a high-energy photon by a nucleus . In fact, γ size 12{γ} {} radiation comes from the de-excitation of a nucleus, just as an x ray comes from the de-excitation of an atom. The names " γ size 12{γ} {} ray" and "x ray" identify the source of the radiation. At the same energy, γ size 12{γ} {} rays and x rays are otherwise identical.

Properties of nuclear radiation
Type of Radiation Range
α size 12{α} {} -Particles A sheet of paper, a few cm of air, fractions of a mm of tissue
β size 12{β} {} -Particles A thin aluminum plate, or tens of cm of tissue
γ size 12{γ} {} Rays Several cm of lead or meters of concrete

Ionization and range

Two of the most important characteristics of α size 12{α} {} , β size 12{β} {} , and γ size 12{γ} {} rays were recognized very early. All three types of nuclear radiation produce ionization in materials, but they penetrate different distances in materials—that is, they have different ranges . Let us examine why they have these characteristics and what are some of the consequences.

Questions & Answers

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
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What is thermal heat all about
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why uniform circular motion is called a periodic motion?.
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when a train start from A & it returns at same station A . what is its acceleration?
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what is distance of A to B of the stations and what is the time taken to reach B from A
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the information provided is not enough
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where are the parameters for calculation
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there is enough information to calculate an AVERAGE acceleration
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mistake, there is enough information to calculate an average velocity
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wha are the types of radioactivity ?
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what are the types of radioactivity
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what is static friction
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It is the opposite of kinetic friction
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static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
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I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
Eboh
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
Eboh
why we see the edge effect in case of the field lines of capacitor?
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what is wave
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what is force
Muhammed
force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
MINDERIUM
wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
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we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
What is surface tension
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The resistive force of surface.
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Who can tutor me on simple harmonic motion
yusuf Reply
on both a string and peldulum?
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spring*
Anya
Yea
yusuf
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yusuf
I dont have social media but i do have an email?
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Which is
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Where are you chatting from
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I don't understand the basics of this group
Jimmy
teach him SHM init
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Simple harmonic motion
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how.an.equipotential.line is two dimension and equipotential surface is three dimension ?
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definition of mass of conversion
umezurike Reply
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
Marisa
how many subject is in physics
Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
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Praise what level are you
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If u are doing a levels in your first year you do AS topics therefore you do 5 big topic i.e particles radiation, waves and optics, mechanics,materials, electricity. After that you do A level topics like Specific Harmonic motion circular motion astrophysics depends really
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Yeah basics of physics prin8
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Heat nd Co for a level
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yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
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hallow
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please send the answer
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the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
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I don't know please give the answer
Boniface
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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