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Then A = 10.3 size 12{A} {} blocks and θ = 29.1º size 12{"29.1º"} , so that

A x = A cos θ = ( 10.3 blocks ) ( cos 29.1º ) = 9.0 blocks size 12{}
A y = A sin θ = ( 10.3 blocks ) ( sin 29.1º ) = 5.0 blocks . size 12{""}

Calculating a resultant vector

If the perpendicular components A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} of a vector A size 12{A} {} are known, then A size 12{A} {} can also be found analytically. To find the magnitude A size 12{A} {} and direction θ size 12{θ} {} of a vector from its perpendicular components A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} , we use the following relationships:

A = A x 2 + A y 2 size 12{A= sqrt {A rSub { size 8{x} rSup { size 8{2} } } +A rSub { size 8{y} rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {}
θ = tan 1 ( A y / A x ) . size 12{θ="tan" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } \( A rSub { size 8{y} } /A rSub { size 8{x} } \) } {}
Vector A is shown with its horizontal and vertical components A sub x and A sub y respectively. The magnitude of vector A is equal to the square root of A sub x squared plus A sub y squared. The angle theta of the vector A with the x axis is equal to inverse tangent of A sub y over A sub x
The magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined once the horizontal and vertical components A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} have been determined.

Note that the equation A = A x 2 + A y 2 size 12{A= sqrt {A rSub { size 8{x} rSup { size 8{2} } } +A rSub { size 8{y} rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {} is just the Pythagorean theorem relating the legs of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. For example, if A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} are 9 and 5 blocks, respectively, then A = 9 2 +5 2 =10 . 3 size 12{A= sqrt {9 rSup { size 8{2} } "+5" rSup { size 8{2} } } "=10" "." 3} {} blocks, again consistent with the example of the person walking in a city. Finally, the direction is θ = tan –1 ( 5/9 ) =29.1º size 12{θ="tan" rSup { size 8{–1} } \( "5/9" \) "=29" "." 1 rSup { size 8{o} } } {} , as before.

Determining vectors and vector components with analytical methods

Equations A x = A cos θ size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } =A"cos"θ} {} and A y = A sin θ size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } =A"sin"θ} {} are used to find the perpendicular components of a vector—that is, to go from A size 12{A} {} and θ size 12{θ} {} to A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} . Equations A = A x 2 + A y 2 size 12{A= sqrt {A rSub { size 8{x} rSup { size 8{2} } } +A rSub { size 8{y} rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {} and θ = tan –1 ( A y / A x ) are used to find a vector from its perpendicular components—that is, to go from A x and A y to A and θ . Both processes are crucial to analytical methods of vector addition and subtraction.

Adding vectors using analytical methods

To see how to add vectors using perpendicular components, consider [link] , in which the vectors A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} are added to produce the resultant R size 12{R} {} .

Two vectors A and B are shown. The tail of vector B is at the head of vector A and the tail of the vector A is at origin. Both the vectors are in the first quadrant. The resultant R of these two vectors extending from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B is also shown.
Vectors A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} are two legs of a walk, and R size 12{R} {} is the resultant or total displacement. You can use analytical methods to determine the magnitude and direction of R size 12{R} {} .

If A and B represent two legs of a walk (two displacements), then R is the total displacement. The person taking the walk ends up at the tip of R . There are many ways to arrive at the same point. In particular, the person could have walked first in the x -direction and then in the y -direction. Those paths are the x - and y -components of the resultant, R x and R y size 12{R rSub { size 8{y} } } {} . If we know R x and R y size 12{R rSub { size 8{y} } } {} , we can find R and θ using the equations A = A x 2 + A y 2 and θ = tan –1 ( A y / A x ) size 12{θ="tan" rSup { size 8{–1} } \( A rSub { size 8{y} } /A rSub { size 8{x} } \) } {} . When you use the analytical method of vector addition, you can determine the components or the magnitude and direction of a vector.

Step 1. Identify the x- and y-axes that will be used in the problem. Then, find the components of each vector to be added along the chosen perpendicular axes . Use the equations A x = A cos θ size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } =A"cos"θ} {} and A y = A sin θ size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } =A"sin"θ} {} to find the components. In [link] , these components are A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} , A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} , B x size 12{B rSub { size 8{x} } } {} , and B y size 12{B rSub { size 8{y} } } {} . The angles that vectors A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} make with the x -axis are θ A size 12{θ rSub { size 8{A} } } {} and θ B size 12{θ rSub { size 8{B} } } {} , respectively.

Two vectors A and B are shown. The tail of the vector B is at the head of vector A and the tail of the vector A is at origin. Both the vectors are in the first quadrant. The resultant R of these two vectors extending from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B is also shown. The horizontal and vertical components of the vectors A and B are shown with the help of dotted lines. The vectors labeled as A sub x and A sub y are the components of vector A, and B sub x and B sub y as the components of vector B..
To add vectors A size 12{A} {} and B size 12{B} {} , first determine the horizontal and vertical components of each vector. These are the dotted vectors A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} , A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} , B x size 12{B rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and B y size 12{B rSub { size 8{y} } } {} shown in the image.

Step 2. Find the components of the resultant along each axis by adding the components of the individual vectors along that axis . That is, as shown in [link] ,

R x = A x + B x size 12{R rSub { size 8{x} } =A rSub { size 8{x} } +B rSub { size 8{x} } } {}

and

R y = A y + B y . size 12{R rSub { size 8{y} } =A rSub { size 8{y} } +B rSub { size 8{y} } } {}
Two vectors A and B are shown. The tail of vector B is at the head of vector A and the tail of the vector A is at origin. Both the vectors are in the first quadrant. The resultant R of these two vectors extending from the tail of vector A to the head of vector B is also shown. The vectors A and B are resolved into the horizontal and vertical components shown as dotted lines parallel to x axis and y axis respectively. The horizontal components of vector A and vector B are labeled as A sub x and B sub x and the horizontal component of the resultant R is labeled at R sub x and is equal to A sub x plus B sub x. The vertical components of vector A and vector B are labeled as A sub y and B sub y and the vertical components of the resultant R is labeled as R sub y is equal to A sub y plus B sub y.
The magnitude of the vectors A x size 12{A rSub { size 8{x} } } {} and B x size 12{B rSub { size 8{x} } } {} add to give the magnitude R x size 12{R rSub { size 8{x} } } {} of the resultant vector in the horizontal direction. Similarly, the magnitudes of the vectors A y size 12{A rSub { size 8{y} } } {} and B y size 12{B rSub { size 8{y} } } {} add to give the magnitude R y size 12{R rSub { size 8{y} } } {} of the resultant vector in the vertical direction.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sample chapters: openstax college physics for ap® courses. OpenStax CNX. Oct 23, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11896/1.9
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