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Figure a shows the Earth and the Moon around it orbiting in a circular path shown here as a circle around the Earth with an arrow over it showing the counterclockwise direction of the Moon. The center of mass of the circle is shown here with a point on the Earth that is not the Earth’s center but just right to its center. Figure b shows the Sun and the counterclockwise rotation of the Earth around it, in an elliptical path, which has wiggles. Along this path the center of mass of the Earth-Moon is also shown; it follows non-wiggled elliptical path.
(a) Earth and the Moon rotate approximately once a month around their common center of mass. (b) Their center of mass orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit, but Earth’s path around the Sun has “wiggles” in it. Similar wiggles in the paths of stars have been observed and are considered direct evidence of planets orbiting those stars. This is important because the planets’ reflected light is often too dim to be observed.

Tides

Ocean tides are one very observable result of the Moon’s gravity acting on Earth. [link] is a simplified drawing of the Moon’s position relative to the tides. Because water easily flows on Earth’s surface, a high tide is created on the side of Earth nearest to the Moon, where the Moon’s gravitational pull is strongest. Why is there also a high tide on the opposite side of Earth? The answer is that Earth is pulled toward the Moon more than the water on the far side, because Earth is closer to the Moon. So the water on the side of Earth closest to the Moon is pulled away from Earth, and Earth is pulled away from water on the far side. As Earth rotates, the tidal bulge (an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary planet that it orbits) keeps its orientation with the Moon. Thus there are two tides per day (the actual tidal period is about 12 hours and 25.2 minutes), because the Moon moves in its orbit each day as well).

The given figure shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. The right and left side of the ellipse are labeled as High tide and the top and bottom side are labeled as Low tide. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upwards vector from its top is also shown, which indicates the direction of the Moon’s velocity.
The Moon causes ocean tides by attracting the water on the near side more than Earth, and by attracting Earth more than the water on the far side. The distances and sizes are not to scale. For this simplified representation of the Earth-Moon system, there are two high and two low tides per day at any location, because Earth rotates under the tidal bulge.

The Sun also affects tides, although it has about half the effect of the Moon. However, the largest tides, called spring tides, occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. The smallest tides, called neap tides, occur when the Sun is at a 90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} angle to the Earth-Moon alignment.

Figure a shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upward vector from its top is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape with pointed wiggles throughout its boundary. Figure b shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertical downward vector from its bottom is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape and pointed wiggles throughout its boundary. Figure c shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A horizontal rightward vector from its right side is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape and pointed wiggles throughout its boundary.
(a, b) Spring tides: The highest tides occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. (c) Neap tide: The lowest tides occur when the Sun lies at 90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} to the Earth-Moon alignment. Note that this figure is not drawn to scale.

Tides are not unique to Earth but occur in many astronomical systems. The most extreme tides occur where the gravitational force is the strongest and varies most rapidly, such as near black holes (see [link] ). A few likely candidates for black holes have been observed in our galaxy. These have masses greater than the Sun but have diameters only a few kilometers across. The tidal forces near them are so great that they can actually tear matter from a companion star.

The figure shows a star in sky near a black hole. The tidal force of the black hole is tearing the matter from the star’s surface.
A black hole is an object with such strong gravity that not even light can escape it. This black hole was created by the supernova of one star in a two-star system. The tidal forces created by the black hole are so great that it tears matter from the companion star. This matter is compressed and heated as it is sucked into the black hole, creating light and X-rays observable from Earth.

Questions & Answers

tree physical properties of heat
Bello Reply
tree is a type of organism that grows very tall and have a wood trunk and branches with leaves... how is that related to heat? what did you smoke man?
what are the uses of dimensional analysis
Racheal Reply
Dimensional Analysis. The study of relationships between physical quantities with the help of their dimensions and units of measurements is called dimensional analysis. We use dimensional analysis in order to convert a unit from one form to another.
Emmanuel
meaning of OE and making of the subscript nc
ferunmi Reply
can I ask a question
Negash
kinetic functional force
Moyagabo Reply
what is a principal wave?
Haider Reply
A wave the movement of particles on rest position transferring energy from one place to another
Gabche
not wave. i need to know principal wave or waves.
Haider
principle wave is a superposition of wave when two or more waves meet at a point , whose amplitude is the algebraic sum of the amplitude of the waves
arshad
kindly define principal wave not principle wave (principle of super position) if u can understand my question
Haider
what is a model?
Ella Reply
hi
Muhanned
why are electros emitted only when the frequency of the incident radiation is greater than a certain value
ANSELEM Reply
b/c u have to know that for emission of electron need specific amount of energy which are gain by electron for emission . if incident rays have that amount of energy electron can be emitted, otherwise no way.
Nazir
search photoelectric effect on Google
Nazir
what is ohm's law
Pamilerin Reply
states that electric current in a given metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its end, provided that the temperature of the conductor and other physical factors such as length and cross-sectional area remains constant. mathematically V=IR
ANIEFIOK
hi
Gundala
A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
Pamilerin Reply
just use v^2-u^2=2as
Gundala
how often does electrolyte emits?
alhassan
just use +€^3.7°√π%-4¢•∆¥%
v^2-u^2=2as v=0,u=30,s=100 -30^2=2a*100 -900=200a a=-900/200 a=-4.5m/s^2
akinyemi
what is distribution of trade
Grace Reply
what's acceleration
Joshua Reply
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
Acceleration is velocity all over time
Pamilerin
hi
Stephen
It's not It's the change of velocity relative to time
Laura
Velocity is the change of position relative to time
Laura
acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
Stephen
acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
Noara
what is ohm's law
Stephen
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
Laura
acceleration is the rate of change. of displacement with time.
Radical
the rate of change of velocity is called acceleration
Asma
how i don understand
Willam Reply
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
Savannah Reply
How do you determine the magnitude of force
Peace Reply
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Seema
Which eye defect is corrected by a lens having different curvatures in two perpendicular directions?
Valentina Reply
acute astigmatism?
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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