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Figure a shows the Earth and the Moon around it orbiting in a circular path shown here as a circle around the Earth with an arrow over it showing the counterclockwise direction of the Moon. The center of mass of the circle is shown here with a point on the Earth that is not the Earth’s center but just right to its center. Figure b shows the Sun and the counterclockwise rotation of the Earth around it, in an elliptical path, which has wiggles. Along this path the center of mass of the Earth-Moon is also shown; it follows non-wiggled elliptical path.
(a) Earth and the Moon rotate approximately once a month around their common center of mass. (b) Their center of mass orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit, but Earth’s path around the Sun has “wiggles” in it. Similar wiggles in the paths of stars have been observed and are considered direct evidence of planets orbiting those stars. This is important because the planets’ reflected light is often too dim to be observed.

Tides

Ocean tides are one very observable result of the Moon’s gravity acting on Earth. [link] is a simplified drawing of the Moon’s position relative to the tides. Because water easily flows on Earth’s surface, a high tide is created on the side of Earth nearest to the Moon, where the Moon’s gravitational pull is strongest. Why is there also a high tide on the opposite side of Earth? The answer is that Earth is pulled toward the Moon more than the water on the far side, because Earth is closer to the Moon. So the water on the side of Earth closest to the Moon is pulled away from Earth, and Earth is pulled away from water on the far side. As Earth rotates, the tidal bulge (an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary planet that it orbits) keeps its orientation with the Moon. Thus there are two tides per day (the actual tidal period is about 12 hours and 25.2 minutes), because the Moon moves in its orbit each day as well).

The given figure shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. The right and left side of the ellipse are labeled as High tide and the top and bottom side are labeled as Low tide. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upwards vector from its top is also shown, which indicates the direction of the Moon’s velocity.
The Moon causes ocean tides by attracting the water on the near side more than Earth, and by attracting Earth more than the water on the far side. The distances and sizes are not to scale. For this simplified representation of the Earth-Moon system, there are two high and two low tides per day at any location, because Earth rotates under the tidal bulge.

The Sun also affects tides, although it has about half the effect of the Moon. However, the largest tides, called spring tides, occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. The smallest tides, called neap tides, occur when the Sun is at a 90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} angle to the Earth-Moon alignment.

Figure a shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertically upward vector from its top is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape with pointed wiggles throughout its boundary. Figure b shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A vertical downward vector from its bottom is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape and pointed wiggles throughout its boundary. Figure c shows an ellipse, inside which there is a circular image of the Earth. There is a curved arrow in the lower part of the Earth’s image pointing in the counterclockwise direction. Alongside this image a circular image of the Moon is also given with dots showing the crates over it. A horizontal rightward vector from its right side is also drawn, which shows the direction of velocity. To the right side of the image, an image of the Sun is also shown, in a circular shape and pointed wiggles throughout its boundary.
(a, b) Spring tides: The highest tides occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun are aligned. (c) Neap tide: The lowest tides occur when the Sun lies at 90º size 12{"90" rSup { size 8{ circ } } } {} to the Earth-Moon alignment. Note that this figure is not drawn to scale.

Tides are not unique to Earth but occur in many astronomical systems. The most extreme tides occur where the gravitational force is the strongest and varies most rapidly, such as near black holes (see [link] ). A few likely candidates for black holes have been observed in our galaxy. These have masses greater than the Sun but have diameters only a few kilometers across. The tidal forces near them are so great that they can actually tear matter from a companion star.

The figure shows a star in sky near a black hole. The tidal force of the black hole is tearing the matter from the star’s surface.
A black hole is an object with such strong gravity that not even light can escape it. This black hole was created by the supernova of one star in a two-star system. The tidal forces created by the black hole are so great that it tears matter from the companion star. This matter is compressed and heated as it is sucked into the black hole, creating light and X-rays observable from Earth.

Questions & Answers

how many subject is in physics
Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
Tamdy Reply
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Bethel Reply
what is Linear motion
Hamza Reply
straight line motion is called linear motion
then what
Amera
linear motion is a motion in a line, be it in a straight line or in a non straight line. It is the rate of change of distance.
Saeedul
Hi
aliyu
your are wrong Saeedul
Richard
Linear motion is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension
Jason
is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimensions. 
Praise
what is a classical electrodynamics?
Marga
what is dynamics
Marga
dynamic is the force that stimulates change or progress within the system or process
Oze
what is the formula to calculate wavelength of the incident light
David Reply
if a spring is is stiffness of 950nm-1 what work will be done in extending the spring by 60mmp
Hassan Reply
State the forms of energy
Samzy Reply
machanical
Ridwan
Word : Mechanical wave Definition : The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, e.g., Sound waves. \n\nOther Definition: The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, are called mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are also called elastic waves. Sound waves, water waves are examples of mechanical waves.t Definition: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.h
Clement Reply
correct
Akinpelu
what is mechanical wave
Akinpelu Reply
a wave which require material medium for its propagation
syed
The S.I unit for power is what?
Samuel Reply
watt
Okoli
Am I correct
Okoli
it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
Femi
yes
Femi
correct
Jaheim
kW
Akinpelu
OK that's right
Samuel
SI.unit of power is.watt=j/c.but kw.and Mw are bigger.umots
syed
What is physics
aish Reply
study of matter and its nature
Akinpelu
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
Uniform
why in circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction
Syafiqah Reply
reasonable
Femi
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
MUSTAPHA
What is a wave
Mutuma Reply
Tramsmission of energy through a media
Mateo
is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
Akinpelu
mistakes thanks
Akinpelu
find the triple product of (A*B).C given that A =i + 4j, B=2i - 3j and C = i + k
Favour Reply
Difference between north seeking pole and south seeking pole
Stanley Reply
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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