4.8 Extended topic: the four basic forces—an introduction

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• Understand the four basic forces that underlie the processes in nature.

One of the most remarkable simplifications in physics is that only four distinct forces account for all known phenomena. In fact, nearly all of the forces we experience directly are due to only one basic force, called the electromagnetic force. (The gravitational force is the only force we experience directly that is not electromagnetic.) This is a tremendous simplification of the myriad of apparently different forces we can list, only a few of which were discussed in the previous section. As we will see, the basic forces are all thought to act through the exchange of microscopic carrier particles, and the characteristics of the basic forces are determined by the types of particles exchanged. Action at a distance, such as the gravitational force of Earth on the Moon, is explained by the existence of a force field    rather than by “physical contact.”

The four basic forces are the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, and the strong nuclear force. Their properties are summarized in [link] . Since the weak and strong nuclear forces act over an extremely short range, the size of a nucleus or less, we do not experience them directly, although they are crucial to the very structure of matter. These forces determine which nuclei are stable and which decay, and they are the basis of the release of energy in certain nuclear reactions. Nuclear forces determine not only the stability of nuclei, but also the relative abundance of elements in nature. The properties of the nucleus of an atom determine the number of electrons it has and, thus, indirectly determine the chemistry of the atom. More will be said of all of these topics in later chapters.

Concept connections: the four basic forces

The four basic forces will be encountered in more detail as you progress through the text. The gravitational force is defined in Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation , electric force in Electric Charge and Electric Field , magnetic force in Magnetism , and nuclear forces in Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics . On a macroscopic scale, electromagnetism and gravity are the basis for all forces. The nuclear forces are vital to the substructure of matter, but they are not directly experienced on the macroscopic scale.

Properties of the four basic forces The graviton is a proposed particle, though it has not yet been observed by scientists. See the discussion of gravitational waves later in this section. The particles ${\text{W}}^{+}$ , ${\text{W}}^{-}$ , and ${\text{Z}}^{0}$ are called vector bosons; these were predicted by theory and first observed in 1983. There are eight types of gluons proposed by scientists, and their existence is indicated by meson exchange in the nuclei of atoms.
Force Approximate Relative Strengths Range Attraction/Repulsion Carrier Particle
Gravitational ${\text{10}}^{-\text{38}}$ $\infty$ attractive only Graviton
Electromagnetic ${\text{10}}^{–2}$ $\infty$ attractive and repulsive Photon
Weak nuclear ${\text{10}}^{–\text{13}}$ < ${10}^{–18}\text{m}$ attractive and repulsive ${\text{W}}^{+}$ , ${\text{W}}^{–}$ , ${\text{Z}}^{0}$
Strong nuclear $1$ < ${10}^{–15}\text{m}$ attractive and repulsive gluons

a thick glass cup cracks when hot liquid is poured into it suddenly
because of the sudden contraction that takes place.
Eklu
railway crack has gap between the end of each length because?
For expansion
Eklu
yes
Aiyelabegan
Please i really find it dificult solving equations on physic, can anyone help me out?
sure
Carlee
what is the equation?
Carlee
Sure
Precious
fersnels biprism spectrometer how to determined
how to study the hall effect to calculate the hall effect coefficient of the given semiconductor have to calculate the carrier density by carrier mobility.
Bala
what is the difference between atomic physics and momentum
find the dimensional equation of work,power,and moment of a force show work?
What's sup guys
Peter
cul and you all
Okeh
cool you bro
Nana
so what is going on here
Nana
hello peeps
Joseph
Michelson Morley experiment
how are you
Naveed
am good
Celine
you
Celine
hi
Bala
Hi
Ahmed
Calculate the final velocity attained, when a ball is given a velocity of 2.5m/s, acceleration of 0.67m/s² and reaches its point in 10s. Good luck!!!
2.68m/s
Doc
vf=vi+at vf=2.5+ 0.67*10 vf= 2.5 + 6.7 vf = 9.2
babar
s = vi t +1/2at sq s=58.5 s=v av X t vf= 9.2
babar
how 2.68
babar
v=u+at where v=final velocity u=initial velocity a=acceleration t=time
Eklu
OBERT
my project is Sol gel process how to prepare this process pls tell me
Bala
the dimension of work and energy is ML2T2 find the unit of work and energy hence drive for work?
KgM2S2
Acquah
Two bodies P and Quarter each of mass 1000g. Moved in the same direction with speed of 10m/s and 20m/s respectively. Calculate the impulse of P and Q obeying newton's 3rd law of motion
kk
Doc
the answer is 0.03n according to the 3rd law of motion if the are in same direction meaning they interact each other.
OBERT
definition for wave?
A disturbance that travel from one medium to another and without causing permanent change to its displacement
Fagbenro
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport (Mass transfer). ... There are two main types ofwaves: mechanical and electromagnetic. Mechanicalwaves propagate through a physical matter, whose substance is being deformed
Devansh
K
Manyo
thanks jare
Doc
Thanks
Note: LINEAR MOMENTUM Linear momentum is defined as the product of a system’s mass multiplied by its velocity: size 12{p=mv} {}
what is physic
zalmia
Study of matter and energy
Fagbenro
physics is the science of matter and energy and their interactions
Acquah
physics is the technology behind air and matter
Doc
Okay
William
hi sir
Bala
how easy to understanding physics sir
Bala
Easy to learn
William
31. Calculate the initial (from rest) acceleration of a proton in a 5.00×106 N/C electric field (such as created by a research Van de Graaff). Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for electrostatics.
A tennis ball is projected at an angle and attains a range of 78. if the velocity is 30metres per second, calculate the angle
Shimolla
what friction
question on friction
Wisdom
the rubbing of one object or surface against another.
author
momentum is the product of mass and it's velocity.
Algayawi
what are bioelements?
Edina
Friction is a force that exist between two objects in contact. e.g. friction between road and car tires.
Eklu