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Gravitational attraction between galaxies is slowing the expansion of the universe, but the amount of slowing down is not known directly. In fact, the cosmological constant can counteract gravity’s effect. As recent measurements indicate, the universe is expanding faster now than in the past—perhaps a “modern inflationary era” in which the dark energy is thought to be causing the expansion of the present-day universe to accelerate. If the expansion rate were affected by gravity alone, we should be able to see that the expansion rate between distant galaxies was once greater than it is now. However, measurements show it was less than now. We can, however, calculate the amount of slowing based on the average density of matter we observe directly. Here we have a definite answer—there is far less visible matter than needed to stop expansion. The critical density     ρ c size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is defined to be the density needed to just halt universal expansion in a universe with no cosmological constant. It is estimated to be about

ρ c 10 26 kg/m 3 . size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{c} } approx "10" rSup { size 8{ - "26"} } `"kg/m" rSup { size 8{3} } "."} {}

However, this estimate of ρ c size 12{ρ rSub { size 8{c} } } {} is only good to about a factor of two, due to uncertainties in the expansion rate of the universe. The critical density is equivalent to an average of only a few nucleons per cubic meter, remarkably small and indicative of how truly empty intergalactic space is. Luminous matter seems to account for roughly 0 . 5% size 12{0 "." 5%} {} to 2% size 12{2%} {} of the critical density, far less than that needed for closure. Taking into account the amount of dark matter we detect indirectly and all other types of indirectly observed normal matter, there is only 10% size 12{"10"%} {} to 40% size 12{"40"%} {} of what is needed for closure. If we are able to refine the measurements of expansion rates now and in the past, we will have our answer regarding the curvature of space and we will determine a value for the cosmological constant to justify this observation. Finally, the most recent measurements of the CMBR have implications for the cosmological constant, so it is not simply a device concocted for a single purpose.

After the recent experimental discovery of the cosmological constant, most researchers feel that the universe should be just barely open. Since matter can be thought to curve the space around it, we call an open universe negatively curved    . This means that you can in principle travel an unlimited distance in any direction. A universe that is closed is called positively curved    . This means that if you travel far enough in any direction, you will return to your starting point, analogous to circumnavigating the Earth. In between these two is a flat (zero curvature) universe    . The recent discovery of the cosmological constant has shown the universe is very close to flat, and will expand forever. Why do theorists feel the universe is flat? Flatness is a part of the inflationary scenario that helps explain the flatness of the microwave background. In fact, since general relativity implies that matter creates the space in which it exists, there is a special symmetry to a flat universe.

Figure a shows an eye looking toward a rotating spiral galaxy. Light coming from the galaxy arms that are rotating away from the observer is red shifted, and light coming from the galaxy arms that are rotating toward the observer is blue shifted. Figure b shows a graph of star rotation speed versus star radius. From zero radius, the curve increases steeply and peaks near two hundred and fifty kilometers per second at a radius of zero point five arbitrary units. The curve then decreases slightly and progresses to a radius of sixteen arbitrary units with ups and down between two hundred and two hundred and twenty five kilometers per second. Figure c shows an image of multiple galaxies and other objects against a black background. In the center of the image is a roughly circular purple haze, on the left and right of which are two slightly smaller and roughly circular blue haze regions.
Evidence for dark matter: (a) We can measure the velocities of stars relative to their galaxies by observing the Doppler shift in emitted light, usually using the hydrogen spectrum. These measurements indicate the rotation of a spiral galaxy. (b) A graph of velocity versus distance from the galactic center shows that the velocity does not decrease as it would if the matter were concentrated in luminous stars. The flatness of the curve implies a massive galactic halo of dark matter extending beyond the visible stars. (c) This is a computer-generated image of X rays from a galactic cluster. The X rays indicate the presence of otherwise unseen hot clouds of ionized gas in the regions of space previously considered more empty. (credit: NASA, ESA, CXC, M. Bradac (University of California, Santa Barbara), and S. Allen (Stanford University))

Questions & Answers

How do you convert 0.0045kgcm³ to the si unit?
how many state of matter do we really have like I mean... is there any newly discovered state of matter?
Falana Reply
I only know 5: •Solids •Liquids •Gases •Plasma •Bose-Einstein condensate
Alright Thank you
Which one is the Bose-Einstein
can you explain what plasma and the I her one you mentioned
u can say sun or stars are just the state of plasma
but the are more than seven
what the meaning of continuum
Akhigbe Reply
What state of matter is fire
Thapelo Reply
fire is not in any state of matter...fire is rather a form of energy produced from an oxidising reaction.
Isn`t fire the plasma state of matter?
How can you define time?
Thapelo Reply
Time can be defined as a continuous , dynamic , irreversible , unpredictable quantity .
what is the relativity of physics
Paul Reply
How do you convert 0.0045kgcm³ to the si unit?
What is the formula for motion
Anthony Reply
V=u+at V²=u²-2as
they are eqns of linear motion
v=u+at s=ut+at^\2 v^=u^+2as where ^=2
Explain dopplers effect
Jennifer Reply
Not yet learnt
Explain motion with types
Acceleration is the change in velocity over time. Given this information, is acceleration a vector or a scalar quantity? Explain.
Alabi Reply
Scalar quantity Because acceleration has only magnitude
acleration is vectr quatity it is found in a spefied direction and it is product of displcemnt
its a scalar quantity
velocity is speed and direction. since velocity is a part of acceleration that makes acceleration a vector quantity. an example of this is centripetal acceleration. when you're moving in a circular patter at a constant speed, you are still accelerating because your direction is constantly changing.
acceleration is a vector quantity. As explained by Josh Thompson, even in circular motion, bodies undergoing circular motion only accelerate because on the constantly changing direction of their constant speed. also retardation and acceleration are differentiated by virtue of their direction in
respect to prevailing force
What is the difference between impulse and momentum?
Momentum is the product of the mass of a body and the change in velocity of its motion. ie P=m(v-u)/t (SI unit is kgm/s). it is literally the impact of collision from a moving body. While Impulse is the product of momentum and time. I = Pt (SI unit is kgm) or it is literally the change in momentum
Or I = m(v-u)
Calculation of kinetic and potential energy
dion Reply
K.e=mv² P.e=mgh
K is actually 1/2 mv^2
what impulse is given to an a-particle of mass 6.7*10^-27 kg if it is ejected from a stationary nucleus at a speed of 3.2*10^-6ms²? what average force is needed if it is ejected in approximately 10^-8 s?
speed=velocity÷time velocity=speed×time=3.2×10^-6×10^-8=32×10^-14m/s impulse [I]=∆momentum[P]=mass×velocity=6.7×10^-27×32×10^-14=214.4×10^-41kg/ms force=impulse÷time=214.4×10^-41÷10^-8=214.4×10^-33N. dats how I solved it.if wrong pls correct me.
what is sound wave
Nworu Reply
sound wave is a mechanical longitudinal wave that transfers energy from one point to another
its a longitudnal wave which is associted wth compresion nad rearfractions
what is power
it's also a capability to do something or act in a particular way.
Newton laws of motion
power also known as the rate of ability to do work
power means capabilty to do work p=w/t its unit is watt or j/s it also represents how much work is done fr evry second
what does fluorine do?
Cheyanne Reply
strengthen and whiten teeth.
a simple pendulum make 50 oscillation in 1minute, what is it period of oscillation?
Nansing Reply
length of pendulm?
what is the difference between temperature and heat transfer?
Bonga Reply
temperature is the measurement of hotness or coldness of a body... heat transfer is the movement of heat from one body to another
U get it right
heat is an energy possesed by any substance due to random kinetic energy possesed by molecules while temperature is driving force which gives direction of flow heat

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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