# 32.5 Fusion

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• Define nuclear fusion.
• Discuss processes to achieve practical fusion energy generation.

While basking in the warmth of the summer sun, a student reads of the latest breakthrough in achieving sustained thermonuclear power and vaguely recalls hearing about the cold fusion controversy. The three are connected. The Sun’s energy is produced by nuclear fusion (see [link] ). Thermonuclear power is the name given to the use of controlled nuclear fusion as an energy source. While research in the area of thermonuclear power is progressing, high temperatures and containment difficulties remain. The cold fusion controversy centered around unsubstantiated claims of practical fusion power at room temperatures.

Nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two nuclei are combined, or fused , to form a larger nucleus. We know that all nuclei have less mass than the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons that form them. The missing mass times ${c}^{2}$ equals the binding energy of the nucleus—the greater the binding energy, the greater the missing mass. We also know that $\text{BE}/A$ , the binding energy per nucleon, is greater for medium-mass nuclei and has a maximum at Fe (iron). This means that if two low-mass nuclei can be fused together to form a larger nucleus, energy can be released. The larger nucleus has a greater binding energy and less mass per nucleon than the two that combined. Thus mass is destroyed in the fusion reaction, and energy is released (see [link] ). On average, fusion of low-mass nuclei releases energy, but the details depend on the actual nuclides involved.

The major obstruction to fusion is the Coulomb repulsion between nuclei. Since the attractive nuclear force that can fuse nuclei together is short ranged, the repulsion of like positive charges must be overcome to get nuclei close enough to induce fusion. [link] shows an approximate graph of the potential energy between two nuclei as a function of the distance between their centers. The graph is analogous to a hill with a well in its center. A ball rolled from the right must have enough kinetic energy to get over the hump before it falls into the deeper well with a net gain in energy. So it is with fusion. If the nuclei are given enough kinetic energy to overcome the electric potential energy due to repulsion, then they can combine, release energy, and fall into a deep well. One way to accomplish this is to heat fusion fuel to high temperatures so that the kinetic energy of thermal motion is sufficient to get the nuclei together.

Why is the sky blue...?
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
Mike
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
Azummiri
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
Ramonyai
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic
who is a nurse
A nurse is a person who takes care of the sick
Bukola
a nurse is also like an assistant to the doctor
explain me wheatstone bridge
good app
samuel
Wheatstone bridge is an instrument used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component.
MUHD
Rockwell Software is Rockwell Automation’s "Retro Encabulator". Now, basically the only new principle involved is that instead of power being generated by the relative motion of conductors and fluxes, it’s produced by the modial interaction of magneto-reluctance and capacitive diractance. The origin
Chip
what refractive index
write a comprehensive note on primary colours
relationship between refractive index, angle of minimum deviation and angle of prism
Harrison
Who knows the formula for binding energy,and what each variable or notation stands for?
1. A black thermocouple measures the temperature in the chamber with black walls.if the air around the thermocouple is 200 C,the walls are at 1000 C,and the heat transfer constant is 15.compute the temperature gradient
what is the relationship between G and g
G is the u. constant, as g stands for grav, accelerate at a discreet point
Mark
Olaiya
pls explain in details
Olaiya
G is a universal constant
Mark
g stands for the gravitational acceleration point. hope this helps you.
Mark
balloon TD is at a gravitational acceleration at a specific point
Mark
I'm sorry this doesn't take dictation very well.
Mark
Can anyone explain the Hooke's law of elasticity?
extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied so long as the force applied does not exceed the springs capacity according to my textbook
Amber
does this help?
Amber
Yes, thanks
Olaiya
so any solid can be compressed how compressed is dependent upon how much force is applied F=deltaL
Amber
sorry, the equation is F=KdeltaL delta is the triangle symbol and L is length so the change in length is proportional to amount of Force applied I believe that is what Hookes law means. anyone catch any mistakes here please correct me :)
Amber
I think it is used only for solids and not liquids, isn't it?
Olaiya
basically as long as you dont exceed the elastic limit the object should return to it original form but if you exceed this limit the object will not return to original shape as it will break
Amber
Thanks for the explanation
Olaiya
yh, liquids don't apply here, that should be viscosity
Chiamaka
hope it helps 😅
Amber
also, an object doesnt have to break necessarily, but it will have a new form :)
Amber
Yes
Olaiya
yeah, I think it is for solids but maybe there is a variation for liquids? that I am not sure of
Amber
ok
Olaiya
good luck!
Amber
Same
Olaiya
aplease i need a help on spcific latent heat of vibrations
Bilgate
specific latent heat of vaporisation
Bilgate
how many kilometers makes a mile
Faizyab
Aakash
equal to 1.609344 kilometers.
MUHD