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E n = 1 2 m e v 2 k Zq e 2 r n . size 12{E rSub { size 8{n} } = { {1} over {2} } m rSub { size 8{e} } v rSup { size 8{2} } - k { { ital "Zq" rSub { size 8{e} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {r rSub { size 8{n} } } } } {}

Now we substitute r n size 12{r rSub { size 8{n} } } {} and v size 12{v} {} from earlier equations into the above expression for energy. Algebraic manipulation yields

E n = Z 2 n 2 E 0 ( n = 1, 2, 3, ... ) size 12{E rSub { size 8{n} } = - { {Z rSup { size 8{2} } } over {n rSup { size 8{2} } } } E rSub { size 8{0} } \( n=1," 2, 3, " "." "." "." \) } {}

for the orbital energies of hydrogen-like atoms    . Here, E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the ground-state energy n = 1 size 12{ left (n=1 right )} {} for hydrogen Z = 1 size 12{ left (Z=1 right )} {} and is given by

E 0 = 2 π 2 q e 4 m e k 2 h 2 = 13.6 eV.

Thus, for hydrogen,

E n = 13.6 eV n 2 ( n = 1, 2, 3, ...).

[link] shows an energy-level diagram for hydrogen that also illustrates how the various spectral series for hydrogen are related to transitions between energy levels.

An energy level diagram is shown. At the left, there is a vertical arrow showing the energy levels increasing from bottom to top. At the bottom, there is a horizontal line showing the energy levels of Lyman series, n is one. The energy is marked as negative thirteen point six electron volt. Then, in the upper half of the figure, another horizontal line showing Balmer series is shown when the value of n is two. The energy level is labeled as negative three point four zero electron volt. Above it there is another horizontal line showing Paschen series. The energy level is marked as negative one point five one electron volt. Above this line, some more lines are shown in a small area to show energy levels of other values of n.
Energy-level diagram for hydrogen showing the Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen series of transitions. The orbital energies are calculated using the above equation, first derived by Bohr.

Electron total energies are negative, since the electron is bound to the nucleus, analogous to being in a hole without enough kinetic energy to escape. As n size 12{n} {} approaches infinity, the total energy becomes zero. This corresponds to a free electron with no kinetic energy, since r n size 12{r rSub { size 8{n} } } {} gets very large for large n size 12{n} {} , and the electric potential energy thus becomes zero. Thus, 13.6 eV is needed to ionize hydrogen (to go from –13.6 eV to 0, or unbound), an experimentally verified number. Given more energy, the electron becomes unbound with some kinetic energy. For example, giving 15.0 eV to an electron in the ground state of hydrogen strips it from the atom and leaves it with 1.4 eV of kinetic energy.

Finally, let us consider the energy of a photon emitted in a downward transition, given by the equation to be

Δ E = hf = E i E f . size 12{ΔE= ital "hf"=E rSub { size 8{i} } - E rSub { size 8{f} } } {}

Substituting E n = ( 13.6 eV / n 2 ) size 12{E rSub { size 8{n} } = - "13" "." 6``"eV"/n rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , we see that

hf = 13.6 eV 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 . size 12{ ital "hf"= left ("13" "." 6" eV" right ) left ( { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{f} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } - { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } right )} {}

Dividing both sides of this equation by hc size 12{ ital "hc"} {} gives an expression for 1 / λ size 12{1/λ} {} :

hf hc = f c = 1 λ = 13.6 eV hc 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 . size 12{ { { ital "hf"} over { ital "hc"} } = { {f} over {c} } = { {1} over {λ} } = { { left ("13" "." 6" eV" right )} over { ital "hc"} } left ( { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{f} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } - { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } right )} {}

It can be shown that

13.6 eV hc = 13.6 eV 1.602 × 10 −19 J/eV 6.626 × 10 −34 J·s 2.998 × 10 8 m/s = 1.097 × 10 7 m –1 = R

is the Rydberg constant    . Thus, we have used Bohr’s assumptions to derive the formula first proposed by Balmer years earlier as a recipe to fit experimental data.

1 λ = R 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 size 12{ { {1} over {λ} } =R left ( { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{f} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } - { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } right )} {}

We see that Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom answers the question as to why this previously known formula describes the hydrogen spectrum. It is because the energy levels are proportional to 1 / n 2 size 12{1/n rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , where n size 12{n} {} is a non-negative integer. A downward transition releases energy, and so n i size 12{n rSub { size 8{i} } } {} must be greater than n f size 12{n rSub { size 8{f} } } {} . The various series are those where the transitions end on a certain level. For the Lyman series, n f = 1 size 12{n rSub { size 8{f} } =1} {} — that is, all the transitions end in the ground state (see also [link] ). For the Balmer series, n f = 2 size 12{n rSub { size 8{f} } =2} {} , or all the transitions end in the first excited state; and so on. What was once a recipe is now based in physics, and something new is emerging—angular momentum is quantized.

Triumphs and limits of the bohr theory

Bohr did what no one had been able to do before. Not only did he explain the spectrum of hydrogen, he correctly calculated the size of the atom from basic physics. Some of his ideas are broadly applicable. Electron orbital energies are quantized in all atoms and molecules. Angular momentum is quantized. The electrons do not spiral into the nucleus, as expected classically (accelerated charges radiate, so that the electron orbits classically would decay quickly, and the electrons would sit on the nucleus—matter would collapse). These are major triumphs.

Questions & Answers

kinetic functional force
Moyagabo Reply
what is a principal wave?
Haider Reply
A wave the movement of particles on rest position transferring energy from one place to another
not wave. i need to know principal wave or waves.
principle wave is a superposition of wave when two or more waves meet at a point , whose amplitude is the algebraic sum of the amplitude of the waves
kindly define principal wave not principle wave (principle of super position) if u can understand my question
what is a model?
Ella Reply
why are electros emitted only when the frequency of the incident radiation is greater than a certain value
b/c u have to know that for emission of electron need specific amount of energy which are gain by electron for emission . if incident rays have that amount of energy electron can be emitted, otherwise no way.
search photoelectric effect on Google
what is ohm's law
Pamilerin Reply
states that electric current in a given metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its end, provided that the temperature of the conductor and other physical factors such as length and cross-sectional area remains constant. mathematically V=IR
A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
Pamilerin Reply
just use v^2-u^2=2as
how often does electrolyte emits?
just use +€^3.7°√π%-4¢•∆¥%
v^2-u^2=2as v=0,u=30,s=100 -30^2=2a*100 -900=200a a=-900/200 a=-4.5m/s^2
what is distribution of trade
Grace Reply
what's acceleration
Joshua Reply
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Acceleration is velocity all over time
It's not It's the change of velocity relative to time
Velocity is the change of position relative to time
acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
what is ohm's law
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
acceleration is the rate of change. of displacement with time.
the rate of change of velocity is called acceleration
how i don understand
Willam Reply
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
Savannah Reply
How do you determine the magnitude of force
Peace Reply
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Which eye defect is corrected by a lens having different curvatures in two perpendicular directions?
Valentina Reply
acute astigmatism?
the difference between virtual work and virtual displacement
Noman Reply
How do you calculate uncertainties
Ancilla Reply
What is Elasticity
Salim Reply
the property of a body to regain it's original shape is called elasticity. or. the property of a body which can be stretch is called elasticity.
Practice Key Terms 7

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