# 3.2 Vector addition and subtraction: graphical methods  (Page 2/15)

 Page 2 / 15

Step 1. Draw an arrow to represent the first vector (9 blocks to the east) using a ruler and protractor .

Step 2. Now draw an arrow to represent the second vector (5 blocks to the north). Place the tail of the second vector at the head of the first vector .

Step 3. If there are more than two vectors, continue this process for each vector to be added. Note that in our example, we have only two vectors, so we have finished placing arrows tip to tail .

Step 4. Draw an arrow from the tail of the first vector to the head of the last vector . This is the resultant    , or the sum, of the other vectors.

Step 5. To get the magnitude of the resultant, measure its length with a ruler. (Note that in most calculations, we will use the Pythagorean theorem to determine this length.)

Step 6. To get the direction of the resultant, measure the angle it makes with the reference frame using a protractor. (Note that in most calculations, we will use trigonometric relationships to determine this angle.)

The graphical addition of vectors is limited in accuracy only by the precision with which the drawings can be made and the precision of the measuring tools. It is valid for any number of vectors.

## Adding vectors graphically using the head-to-tail method: a woman takes a walk

Use the graphical technique for adding vectors to find the total displacement of a person who walks the following three paths (displacements) on a flat field. First, she walks 25.0 m in a direction $\text{49.0º}$ north of east. Then, she walks 23.0 m heading $\text{15.0º}$ north of east. Finally, she turns and walks 32.0 m in a direction 68.0° south of east.

Strategy

Represent each displacement vector graphically with an arrow, labeling the first $\text{A}$ , the second $\text{B}$ , and the third $\text{C}$ , making the lengths proportional to the distance and the directions as specified relative to an east-west line. The head-to-tail method outlined above will give a way to determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant displacement, denoted $\mathbf{\text{R}}$ .

Solution

(1) Draw the three displacement vectors.

(2) Place the vectors head to tail retaining both their initial magnitude and direction.

(3) Draw the resultant vector, $\text{R}$ .

(4) Use a ruler to measure the magnitude of $\mathbf{\text{R}}$ , and a protractor to measure the direction of $\text{R}$ . While the direction of the vector can be specified in many ways, the easiest way is to measure the angle between the vector and the nearest horizontal or vertical axis. Since the resultant vector is south of the eastward pointing axis, we flip the protractor upside down and measure the angle between the eastward axis and the vector.

In this case, the total displacement $\mathbf{\text{R}}$ is seen to have a magnitude of 50.0 m and to lie in a direction $7.0º$ south of east. By using its magnitude and direction, this vector can be expressed as $R=\text{50.0 m}$ and $\theta =7\text{.}\text{0º}$ south of east.

Discussion

The head-to-tail graphical method of vector addition works for any number of vectors. It is also important to note that the resultant is independent of the order in which the vectors are added. Therefore, we could add the vectors in any order as illustrated in [link] and we will still get the same solution.

what's acceleration
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
how i don understand
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
How do you determine the magnitude of force
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Seema
Which eye defect is corrected by a lens having different curvatures in two perpendicular directions?
acute astigmatism?
the difference between virtual work and virtual displacement
How do you calculate uncertainties
What is Elasticity
using a micro-screw gauge,the thickness of a piece of a A4 white paper is measured to be 0.5+or-0.05 mm. If the length of the A4 paper is 26+or-0.2 cm, determine the volume of the A4 paper in: a). Cubic centimeters b). Cubic meters
what is module
why it is possible for an object(man) to stay on air without falling down?
its impossible, what do you mean exactly?
Ryan
Exactly
Emmanuella
it's impossible
Your
Why is it not possible to stand in air?
bikko
the air molecules are very light enough to oppose the gravitational pull of the earth on the man..... hence, freefall occurs
Arzail
what is physics
no life without physics ....that should tell you something
Exactly
Emmanuella
😎👍
E=MC^2
study of matter and energy and an inter-relation between them.
Minahil
that's how the mass and energy are related in stationery frame
Arzail
Ketucky tepung 10m
firdaus
Treeskin, 6m Cloud gam water 2m Cloud gam white 2m And buur
firdaus
Like dont have but have
firdaus
Two in one
firdaus
Okay
firdaus
DNA card
firdaus
hey am new over hear
Shiwani
War right? My impesilyty again. Don't have INSURAN for me
firdaus
PUSH
firdaus
I give
firdaus
0kay
firdaus
Hear from long
firdaus
Hehehe
firdaus
All physics... Hahahaha
firdaus
Tree skin and two cloud have tokside maybe
firdaus
Sold thing
firdaus
PUSH FIRST. HAHAHAAHA
firdaus
thanks
firdaus
Kinetic energy is the energy due to montion of waves,electrons,atoms, molecule,substances an object s.
Emmanuella
Opjective 0
firdaus
Atom nber 0
firdaus
SOME N
firdaus
10.000m permonth. U use momentom with me
firdaus
hi
Hilal
plz anyone can tell what is meteor and why meteor fall in night? can meteor fall in the day
Hilal
meteor are the glowy (i.e. heated when the enter into our atmosphere) parts of meteoroids. now, meteoroids are the debris resulting from the collision of asteroids or comets. yes, it occurs in daytime too, but due to the daylight, we cant observe it as clearly as in night
Arzail
thank's
Hilal
hello guys
Waka
wich method we use to find the potential on a grounded sphere
Noman
with out a physics the life is nothing to see
What do you want to talk about😋😋
Emmanuella
the study of all the natural events occuring around us..... this is Physics (until those events obey the laws of physics)
Arzail
Conservation of energy😰
Emmanuella
yeah, that too
Arzail
Energy, it always remains there in a physical system. it can only take the form either in motion (kinetic energy) or in rest (potential energy)
Arzail
In nature organisms feed on one another in an orderly way.
Emmanuella
that describes the food chain, in which we humans are at the top
Arzail
The energy that came initially from the sun 🌞is converted into a form in which it can be stored in green plant.
Emmanuella
Therefore, there is conservation of energy.
Emmanuella
DNA CARD
firdaus
"card"
firdaus
Darag
firdaus
What is x-ray
x-rays are electromagnetic Ray's produced when electrons with very high acceleration is brought to a stop by a target metal..
Felix
DNA CARD. DNA BLOOD(DARAH)
firdaus
@firdaus What is this DNA card? can I get to know?
Arzail
determine how much less the mass of lithium with mass number of 7 and proton of 3 nucleus is compared to that of its constituents.the mass of neutral Li 6.015123 u, calculate the total binding energy and the binding energy per nucleon
Try do car normally don't have oil. Like closing at all
firdaus
At
firdaus
Blosing design
firdaus
At-->automatic
firdaus
Blood DNA
firdaus