<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
I ave = cB 0 2 0 , size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2μ rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

where B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the maximum magnetic field strength.

One more expression for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} in terms of both electric and magnetic field strengths is useful. Substituting the fact that c B 0 = E 0 size 12{c cdot B rSub { size 8{0} } =E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} , the previous expression becomes

I ave = E 0 B 0 0 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } B rSub { size 8{0} } } over {2μ rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

Whichever of the three preceding equations is most convenient can be used, since they are really just different versions of the same principle: Energy in a wave is related to amplitude squared. Furthermore, since these equations are based on the assumption that the electromagnetic waves are sinusoidal, peak intensity is twice the average; that is, I 0 = 2 I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } =2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} .

Calculate microwave intensities and fields

On its highest power setting, a certain microwave oven projects 1.00 kW of microwaves onto a 30.0 by 40.0 cm area. (a) What is the intensity in W/m 2 size 12{"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ? (b) Calculate the peak electric field strength E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} in these waves. (c) What is the peak magnetic field strength B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} ?

Strategy

In part (a), we can find intensity from its definition as power per unit area. Once the intensity is known, we can use the equations below to find the field strengths asked for in parts (b) and (c).

Solution for (a)

Entering the given power into the definition of intensity, and noting the area is 0.300 by 0.400 m, yields

I = P A = 1 . 00 kW 0 . 300 m × 0 . 400 m . size 12{I= { {P} over {A} } = { {1 "." "00"" kW"} over {0 "." "300 m"×0 "." "400 m"} } } {}

Here I = I ave size 12{I=I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} , so that

I ave = 1000 W 0 . 120 m 2 = 8 . 33 × 10 3 W/m 2 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {"1000"" W"} over {0 "." "120"" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } } =8 "." "33"×"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

Note that the peak intensity is twice the average:

I 0 = 2 I ave = 1 . 67 × 10 4 W / m 2 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } =2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } =1 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}

Solution for (b)

To find E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} , we can rearrange the first equation given above for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} to give

E 0 = 2 I ave 0 1/2 . size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = left ( { {2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } over {ce rSub { size 8{0} } } } right ) rSup { size 8{ {1}wideslash {2} } } } {}

Entering known values gives

E 0 = 2 ( 8 . 33 × 10 3 W/m 2 ) ( 3 . 00 × 10 8 m/s ) ( 8.85 × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 ) = 2.51 × 10 3 V/m . alignl { stack { size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = sqrt { { {2 \( 8 "." "33"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) } over { \( 3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s" \) \( 8 "." "85"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- 2} } C rSup { size 8{2} } /N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } \) } } } } {} #=2 "." "51"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " V/m" "." {} } } {}

Solution for (c)

Perhaps the easiest way to find magnetic field strength, now that the electric field strength is known, is to use the relationship given by

B 0 = E 0 c . size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } } over {c} } } {}

Entering known values gives

B 0 = 2.51 × 10 3 V/m 3.0 × 10 8 m/s = 8.35 × 10 6 T . alignl { stack { size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } = { {2 "." "51"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " V/m"} over {3 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} } } {} #=8 "." "35"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T" "." {} } } {}

Discussion

As before, a relatively strong electric field is accompanied by a relatively weak magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave, since B = E / c size 12{B= {E} slash {c} } {} , and c size 12{c} {} is a large number.

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Section summary

  • The energy carried by any wave is proportional to its amplitude squared. For electromagnetic waves, this means intensity can be expressed as
    I ave = 0 E 0 2 2 , size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {ce rSub { size 8{0} } E rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2} } } {}

    where I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} is the average intensity in W/m 2 size 12{"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , and E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the maximum electric field strength of a continuous sinusoidal wave.

  • This can also be expressed in terms of the maximum magnetic field strength B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} as
    I ave = cB 0 2 0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

    and in terms of both electric and magnetic fields as

    I ave = E 0 B 0 0 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } B rSub { size 8{0} } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}
  • The three expressions for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} are all equivalent.

Problems&Exercises

What is the intensity of an electromagnetic wave with a peak electric field strength of 125 V/m?

I = 0 E 0 2 2 = 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 8.85 × 10 –12 C 2 /N m 2 1 25 V/m 2 2 = 20. 7 W/m 2

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Find the intensity of an electromagnetic wave having a peak magnetic field strength of 4 . 00 × 10 9 T size 12{4 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{-9} } " T"} {} .

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Assume the helium-neon lasers commonly used in student physics laboratories have power outputs of 0.250 mW. (a) If such a laser beam is projected onto a circular spot 1.00 mm in diameter, what is its intensity? (b) Find the peak magnetic field strength. (c) Find the peak electric field strength.

(a) I = P A = P π r 2 = 0 . 250 × 10 3 W π 0 . 500 × 10 3 m 2 = 318 W/m 2 size 12{I= { {P} over {A} } = { {P} over {p r rSup { size 8{2} } } } = { {0 "." "250"´"10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " W"} over {∂ left (0 "." "500"´"10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " m" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } } } ="318 W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) I ave = cB 0 2 0 B 0 = 0 I c 1 / 2 = 2 4 π × 10 7 T m/A 318 . 3 W/m 2 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 1 / 2 = 1 . 63 × 10 6 T alignl { stack { size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} rSup { size 8{2} } } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } drarrow B rSub { size 8{0} } = left ( { {2m rSub { size 8{0} } I} over {c} } right ) rSup { size 8{1/2} } } {} #= left [ { {2 left (4¶´"10" rSup { size 8{-7} } " T" cdot "m/A" right ) left ("318" "." "3 W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } right )} over {3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} } right ] rSup { size 8{ {1} slash {2} } } {} #= {underline {1 "." "63"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T"}} {} } } {}

(c) E 0 = cB 0 = 3 .00 × 10 8 m/s 1.633 × 10 6 T = 4 . 90 × 10 2 V/m alignl { stack { size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } = left (3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s" right ) left (1 "." "633"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T" right )} {} #= {underline {4 "." "90"´"10" rSup { size 8{2} } " V/m"}} {} } } {}

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

the meaning of phrase in physics
Chovwe Reply
is the meaning of phrase in physics
Chovwe
write an expression for a plane progressive wave moving from left to right along x axis and having amplitude 0.02m, frequency of 650Hz and speed if 680ms-¹
Gabriel Reply
how does a model differ from a theory
Friday Reply
To use the vocabulary of model theory and meta-logic, a theory is a set of sentences which can be derived from a formal model using some rule of inference (usually just modus ponens). So, for example, Number Theory is the set of sentences true about numbers. But the model is a structure together wit
Jesilda
with an iterpretation.
Jesilda
what is vector quantity
Ridwan Reply
Vector quality have both direction and magnitude, such as Force, displacement, acceleration and etc.
Besmellah
Is the force attractive or repulsive between the hot and neutral lines hung from power poles? Why?
Jack Reply
what's electromagnetic induction
Chinaza Reply
electromagnetic induction is a process in which conductor is put in a particular position and magnetic field keeps varying.
Lukman
wow great
Salaudeen
what is mutual induction?
je
mutual induction can be define as the current flowing in one coil that induces a voltage in an adjacent coil.
Johnson
how to undergo polarization
Ajayi Reply
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y³ towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v²k² and distance uk²/√u-vk as origin
Gabriel Reply
show that a particle moving under the influence of an attractive force mu/y^3 towards the axis x. show that if it be projected from the point (0,k) with the component velocities U and V parallel to the axis of x and y, it will not strike the axis of x unless u>v^2k^2 and distance uk^2/√u-k as origin
Gabriel Reply
No idea.... Are you even sure this question exist?
Mavis
I can't even understand the question
Ademiye
yes it was an assignment question "^"represent raise to power pls
Gabriel
mu/y³ u>v²k² uk²/√u-vk please help me out
Gabriel
An engineer builds two simple pendula. Both are suspended from small wires secured to the ceiling of a room. Each pendulum hovers 2 cm above the floor. Pendulum 1 has a bob with a mass of 10kg . Pendulum 2 has a bob with a mass of 100 kg . Describe how the motion of the pendula will differ if the bobs are both displaced by 12º .
Imtiaz Reply
no ideas
Augstine
if u at an angle of 12 degrees their period will be same so as their velocity, that means they both move simultaneously since both both hovers at same length meaning they have the same length
Ademiye
Modern cars are made of materials that make them collapsible upon collision. Explain using physics concept (Force and impulse), how these car designs help with the safety of passengers.
Isaac Reply
calculate the force due to surface tension required to support a column liquid in a capillary tube 5mm. If the capillary tube is dipped into a beaker of water
Mildred Reply
find the time required for a train Half a Kilometre long to cross a bridge almost kilometre long racing at 100km/h
Ademiye
method of polarization
Ajayi
What is atomic number?
Makperr Reply
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Deborah
type of thermodynamics
Yinka Reply
oxygen gas contained in a ccylinder of volume has a temp of 300k and pressure 2.5×10Nm
Taheer Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask