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I ave = cB 0 2 0 , size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2μ rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

where B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the maximum magnetic field strength.

One more expression for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} in terms of both electric and magnetic field strengths is useful. Substituting the fact that c B 0 = E 0 size 12{c cdot B rSub { size 8{0} } =E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} , the previous expression becomes

I ave = E 0 B 0 0 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } B rSub { size 8{0} } } over {2μ rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

Whichever of the three preceding equations is most convenient can be used, since they are really just different versions of the same principle: Energy in a wave is related to amplitude squared. Furthermore, since these equations are based on the assumption that the electromagnetic waves are sinusoidal, peak intensity is twice the average; that is, I 0 = 2 I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } =2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} .

Calculate microwave intensities and fields

On its highest power setting, a certain microwave oven projects 1.00 kW of microwaves onto a 30.0 by 40.0 cm area. (a) What is the intensity in W/m 2 size 12{"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ? (b) Calculate the peak electric field strength E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} in these waves. (c) What is the peak magnetic field strength B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} ?

Strategy

In part (a), we can find intensity from its definition as power per unit area. Once the intensity is known, we can use the equations below to find the field strengths asked for in parts (b) and (c).

Solution for (a)

Entering the given power into the definition of intensity, and noting the area is 0.300 by 0.400 m, yields

I = P A = 1 . 00 kW 0 . 300 m × 0 . 400 m . size 12{I= { {P} over {A} } = { {1 "." "00"" kW"} over {0 "." "300 m"×0 "." "400 m"} } } {}

Here I = I ave size 12{I=I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} , so that

I ave = 1000 W 0 . 120 m 2 = 8 . 33 × 10 3 W/m 2 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {"1000"" W"} over {0 "." "120"" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } } =8 "." "33"×"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

Note that the peak intensity is twice the average:

I 0 = 2 I ave = 1 . 67 × 10 4 W / m 2 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{0} } =2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } =1 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}

Solution for (b)

To find E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} , we can rearrange the first equation given above for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} to give

E 0 = 2 I ave 0 1/2 . size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = left ( { {2I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } over {ce rSub { size 8{0} } } } right ) rSup { size 8{ {1}wideslash {2} } } } {}

Entering known values gives

E 0 = 2 ( 8 . 33 × 10 3 W/m 2 ) ( 3 . 00 × 10 8 m/s ) ( 8.85 × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 ) = 2.51 × 10 3 V/m . alignl { stack { size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = sqrt { { {2 \( 8 "." "33"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) } over { \( 3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s" \) \( 8 "." "85"´"10" rSup { size 8{ +- 2} } C rSup { size 8{2} } /N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } \) } } } } {} #=2 "." "51"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " V/m" "." {} } } {}

Solution for (c)

Perhaps the easiest way to find magnetic field strength, now that the electric field strength is known, is to use the relationship given by

B 0 = E 0 c . size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } } over {c} } } {}

Entering known values gives

B 0 = 2.51 × 10 3 V/m 3.0 × 10 8 m/s = 8.35 × 10 6 T . alignl { stack { size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } = { {2 "." "51"´"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " V/m"} over {3 "." 0´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} } } {} #=8 "." "35"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T" "." {} } } {}

Discussion

As before, a relatively strong electric field is accompanied by a relatively weak magnetic field in an electromagnetic wave, since B = E / c size 12{B= {E} slash {c} } {} , and c size 12{c} {} is a large number.

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Section summary

  • The energy carried by any wave is proportional to its amplitude squared. For electromagnetic waves, this means intensity can be expressed as
    I ave = 0 E 0 2 2 , size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {ce rSub { size 8{0} } E rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2} } } {}

    where I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} is the average intensity in W/m 2 size 12{"W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , and E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the maximum electric field strength of a continuous sinusoidal wave.

  • This can also be expressed in terms of the maximum magnetic field strength B 0 size 12{B rSub { size 8{0} } } {} as
    I ave = cB 0 2 0 size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}

    and in terms of both electric and magnetic fields as

    I ave = E 0 B 0 0 . size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { {E rSub { size 8{0} } B rSub { size 8{0} } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } } {}
  • The three expressions for I ave size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } } {} are all equivalent.

Problems&Exercises

What is the intensity of an electromagnetic wave with a peak electric field strength of 125 V/m?

I = 0 E 0 2 2 = 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 8.85 × 10 –12 C 2 /N m 2 1 25 V/m 2 2 = 20. 7 W/m 2

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Find the intensity of an electromagnetic wave having a peak magnetic field strength of 4 . 00 × 10 9 T size 12{4 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{-9} } " T"} {} .

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Assume the helium-neon lasers commonly used in student physics laboratories have power outputs of 0.250 mW. (a) If such a laser beam is projected onto a circular spot 1.00 mm in diameter, what is its intensity? (b) Find the peak magnetic field strength. (c) Find the peak electric field strength.

(a) I = P A = P π r 2 = 0 . 250 × 10 3 W π 0 . 500 × 10 3 m 2 = 318 W/m 2 size 12{I= { {P} over {A} } = { {P} over {p r rSup { size 8{2} } } } = { {0 "." "250"´"10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " W"} over {∂ left (0 "." "500"´"10" rSup { size 8{-3} } " m" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } } } ="318 W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}

(b) I ave = cB 0 2 0 B 0 = 0 I c 1 / 2 = 2 4 π × 10 7 T m/A 318 . 3 W/m 2 3.00 × 10 8 m/s 1 / 2 = 1 . 63 × 10 6 T alignl { stack { size 12{I rSub { size 8{"ave"} } = { { ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} rSup { size 8{2} } } } over {2m rSub { size 8{0} } } } drarrow B rSub { size 8{0} } = left ( { {2m rSub { size 8{0} } I} over {c} } right ) rSup { size 8{1/2} } } {} #= left [ { {2 left (4¶´"10" rSup { size 8{-7} } " T" cdot "m/A" right ) left ("318" "." "3 W/m" rSup { size 8{2} } right )} over {3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s"} } right ] rSup { size 8{ {1} slash {2} } } {} #= {underline {1 "." "63"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T"}} {} } } {}

(c) E 0 = cB 0 = 3 .00 × 10 8 m/s 1.633 × 10 6 T = 4 . 90 × 10 2 V/m alignl { stack { size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = ital "cB" rSub { size 8{0} } = left (3 "." "00"´"10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m/s" right ) left (1 "." "633"´"10" rSup { size 8{-6} } " T" right )} {} #= {underline {4 "." "90"´"10" rSup { size 8{2} } " V/m"}} {} } } {}

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Questions & Answers

definition of mass of conversion
umezurike Reply
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
Marisa
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Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
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straight line motion is called linear motion
then what
Amera
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Saeedul
Hi
aliyu
your are wrong Saeedul
Richard
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is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimensions. 
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dynamic is the force that stimulates change or progress within the system or process
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correct
Akinpelu
what is mechanical wave
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a wave which require material medium for its propagation
syed
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Samuel Reply
watt
Okoli
Am I correct
Okoli
it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
Femi
yes
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correct
Jaheim
kW
Akinpelu
OK that's right
Samuel
SI.unit of power is.watt=j/c.but kw.and Mw are bigger.umots
syed
What is physics
aish Reply
study of matter and its nature
Akinpelu
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
Uniform
why in circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction
Syafiqah Reply
reasonable
Femi
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
MUSTAPHA
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Mutuma Reply
Tramsmission of energy through a media
Mateo
is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
Akinpelu
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Akinpelu
find the triple product of (A*B).C given that A =i + 4j, B=2i - 3j and C = i + k
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Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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