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  • Explain how various modern safety features in electric circuits work, with an emphasis on how induction is employed.

Electricity has two hazards. A thermal hazard    occurs when there is electrical overheating. A shock hazard    occurs when electric current passes through a person. Both hazards have already been discussed. Here we will concentrate on systems and devices that prevent electrical hazards.

[link] shows the schematic for a simple AC circuit with no safety features. This is not how power is distributed in practice. Modern household and industrial wiring requires the three-wire system    , shown schematically in [link] , which has several safety features. First is the familiar circuit breaker (or fuse ) to prevent thermal overload. Second, there is a protective case around the appliance, such as a toaster or refrigerator. The case’s safety feature is that it prevents a person from touching exposed wires and coming into electrical contact with the circuit, helping prevent shocks.

The figure shows an A C voltage source V connected across a resistance R.
Schematic of a simple AC circuit with a voltage source and a single appliance represented by the resistance R size 12{R} {} . There are no safety features in this circuit.
The figure describes an appliance connected to an AC source. One end of the AC circuit is connected to a circuit breaker. The other end of the circuit breaker is connected to an appliance. The appliance is shown as a resistance enclosed in a rectangular case represented as the case of appliance. The other end of the resistance is connected back to the AC source through a connecting wire. The application case, the connecting wire and the A C source are grounded. The ground terminal marked at the appliance case is marked as Green or ground and the ground terminal of AC source and connecting wires are marked as alternate return path to earth.
The three-wire system connects the neutral wire to the earth at the voltage source and user location, forcing it to be at zero volts and supplying an alternative return path for the current through the earth. Also grounded to zero volts is the case of the appliance. A circuit breaker or fuse protects against thermal overload and is in series on the active (live/hot) wire. Note that wire insulation colors vary with region and it is essential to check locally to determine which color codes are in use (and even if they were followed in the particular installation).

There are three connections to earth or ground (hereafter referred to as “earth/ground”) shown in [link] . Recall that an earth/ground connection is a low-resistance path directly to the earth. The two earth/ground connections on the neutral wire force it to be at zero volts relative to the earth, giving the wire its name. This wire is therefore safe to touch even if its insulation, usually white, is missing. The neutral wire is the return path for the current to follow to complete the circuit. Furthermore, the two earth/ground connections supply an alternative path through the earth, a good conductor, to complete the circuit. The earth/ground connection closest to the power source could be at the generating plant, while the other is at the user’s location. The third earth/ground is to the case of the appliance, through the green earth/ground wire , forcing the case, too, to be at zero volts. The live or hot wire (hereafter referred to as “live/hot”) supplies voltage and current to operate the appliance. [link] shows a more pictorial version of how the three-wire system is connected through a three-prong plug to an appliance.

The figure shows an appliance with a three prong plug connected to a three hole outlet. The circuit on the other side of the three hole outlet is also shown. The latter circuit consists of an alternating AC voltage source, V, with one end connected to a circuit breaker, which in turn is connected to a wire labeled black or hot. The other end of the A C voltage source is grounded with a wire labeled white or neutral. The black and white wires go from the A C source to two separate points on the three hole outlet. The third point of the three hole outlet is directly connected to the ground with a wire labeled green. The three wires end at the three hole outlet. The three prong plug is connected to this three hole outlet and the three wires black, white and green are shown to emerge out as the cord of the appliance and are shown connected to the appliance. The appliance is shown as a resistance enclosed in a rectangular case called the case of appliance. The black wire is connected to one end of the resistance. The white wire is connected to the other end of the resistance. The case of the appliance is connected to the green wire.
The standard three-prong plug can only be inserted in one way, to assure proper function of the three-wire system.

A note on insulation color-coding: Insulating plastic is color-coded to identify live/hot, neutral and ground wires but these codes vary around the world. Live/hot wires may be brown, red, black, blue or grey. Neutral wire may be blue, black or white. Since the same color may be used for live/hot or neutral in different parts of the world, it is essential to determine the color code in your region. The only exception is the earth/ground wire which is often green but may be yellow or just bare wire. Striped coatings are sometimes used for the benefit of those who are colorblind.

Questions & Answers

Describe an experiment to determine short half life
Tyson Reply
what is science
Kenedy Reply
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and us connected in series with a capacitor to a 520MV supply
Musa Reply
what is physics
Caya Reply
it is the science which we used in our daily life
Sujitha
Physics is the branch of science that deals with the study of matter and the interactions it undergoes with energy
Junior
it is branch of science which deals with study of happening in the human life
AMIT
it is when you get up of your arse and do some real work 😁
A 20MH coil has a resistance of 50 ohms and is connected in series with a capacitor to a 250MV supply if the circuit is to resonate at 100KHZ, Determine 1: the capacitance of the capacitor 2: the working voltage of the circuit, given that pie =3.142
Musa
Heat is transfered by thermal contact but if it is transfered by conduction or radiation, is it possible to reach in thermal equilibrium?
Eden Reply
Yes, It is possible by conduction if Surface is Adiabatic
Astronomy
what are the fundamentals qualities
Magret Reply
what is physic3
Kalilu
what is physic
Kalilu
Physics? Is a branch of science dealing with matter in relation to energy.
Moses
Physic... Is a purging medicine, which stimulates evacuation of the bowels.
Moses
are you asking for qualities or quantities?
Noman
give examples of three dimensional frame of reference
Ekwunazor Reply
your fat arse sitting all day is a good reference of three dimensional numbnut
Universe
Noman
Yes the Universe itself
Astronomy
Examine different types of shoes, including sports shoes and thongs. In terms of physics, why are the bottom surfaces designed as they are? What differences will dry and wet conditions make for these surfaces?
Lathan Reply
sports shoes are designed in such a way they are gripped well with your feet and their bases have and high friction surfaces, Thong shoes are for comfort, these are easily removed and light weight. these are usually low friction surfaces but in wet conditions they offer greater friction.
Noman
thong sleepers are usually used in restrooms.
Noman
what is wave
Ochigbo Reply
The phenomenon of transfer of energy
Noman
how does time flow in one dimension
Lord Reply
you mean in three dimensions......numbnut
yeah that was a mistake
Lord
if it flows in three dimensions does it mean if an object theoretically moves beyond the speed of light it won't experience time
Lord
time seems to flow in one direction...but I the past present and future happen every moment time flies regardless.
but if an object moves beyond the speed of light time stops right for it
Lord
yes but at light speed it ceases
Lord
yes it always flow from past to future.
Noman
if v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
Emmanuel Reply
x=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
y=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
z=v=ktx Ly Mz find the value of x,y and z
now get your lazy arse up and clean the kitchen 😁
I want to join the conversation
Subaba Reply
😂
hmm
Stephen
what conversation you talking about? .....numbnut
how do i calculate for period of the oscillation
Bridget Reply
T=2π√(m÷k).K is spring constance
Ambe
T=2π√m/k
Lord
does the force in a system result in the energy transfer?
Lebatam Reply
full meaning of GPS system
Anaele Reply
global positioning system
Noman
what's the use of the GPS
Matthew
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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