Individual solar cells are connected electrically in modules to meet electrical-energy needs. They can be wired together in series or in parallel—connected like the batteries discussed earlier. A solar-cell array or module usually consists of between 36 and 72 cells, with a power output of 50 W to 140 W.
The output of the solar cells is direct current. For most uses in a home, AC is required, so a device called an inverter must be used to convert the DC to AC. Any extra output can then be passed on to the outside electrical grid for sale to the utility.
Take-home experiment: virtual solar cells
One can assemble a “virtual” solar cell array by using playing cards, or business or index cards, to represent a solar cell. Combinations of these cards in series and/or parallel can model the required array output. Assume each card has an output of 0.5 V and a current (under bright light) of 2 A. Using your cards, how would you arrange them to produce an output of 6 A at 3 V (18 W)?
Suppose you were told that you needed only 18 W (but no required voltage). Would you need more cards to make this arrangement?
Section summary
All voltage sources have two fundamental parts—a source of electrical energy that has a characteristic electromotive force (emf), and an internal resistance
$r$ .
The emf is the potential difference of a source when no current is flowing.
The numerical value of the emf depends on the source of potential difference.
The internal resistance
$r$ of a voltage source affects the output voltage when a current flows.
The voltage output of a device is called its terminal voltage
$V$ and is given by
$V=\text{emf}-\text{Ir}$ , where
$I$ is the electric current and is positive when flowing away from the positive terminal of the voltage source.
When multiple voltage sources are in series, their internal resistances add and their emfs add algebraically.
Solar cells can be wired in series or parallel to provide increased voltage or current, respectively.
Conceptual questions
Is every emf a potential difference? Is every potential difference an emf? Explain.
Given a battery, an assortment of resistors, and a variety of voltage and current measuring devices, describe how you would determine the internal resistance of the battery.
Semitractor trucks use four large 12-V batteries. The starter system requires 24 V, while normal operation of the truck’s other electrical components utilizes 12 V. How could the four batteries be connected to produce 24 V? To produce 12 V? Why is 24 V better than 12 V for starting the truck’s engine (a very heavy load)?
Unlike transverse waves such as electromagnetic waves, longitudinal waves such as sound waves cannot be polarized. ... Since sound waves vibrate along their direction of propagation, they cannot be polarized
Astronomy
A proton moves at 7.50×107m/s perpendicular to a magnetic field. The field causes the proton to travel in a circular path of radius 0.800 m. What is the field strength?
An American traveler in New Zealand carries a transformer to convert New Zealand’s standard 240 V to 120 V so that she can use some small appliances on her trip.
The potential difference between any two points on the surface is zero that implies È.Ŕ=0, Where R is the distance between two different points &E= Electric field intensity. From which we have cos þ =0, where þ is the angle between the directions of field and distance line, as E andR are zero. Thus