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An object that is thrown straight up falls back to Earth. This is one-dimensional motion. (a) When is its velocity zero? (b) Does its velocity change direction? (c) Does the acceleration due to gravity have the same sign on the way up as on the way down?

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Suppose you throw a rock nearly straight up at a coconut in a palm tree, and the rock misses on the way up but hits the coconut on the way down. Neglecting air resistance, how does the speed of the rock when it hits the coconut on the way down compare with what it would have been if it had hit the coconut on the way up? Is it more likely to dislodge the coconut on the way up or down? Explain.

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If an object is thrown straight up and air resistance is negligible, then its speed when it returns to the starting point is the same as when it was released. If air resistance were not negligible, how would its speed upon return compare with its initial speed? How would the maximum height to which it rises be affected?

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The severity of a fall depends on your speed when you strike the ground. All factors but the acceleration due to gravity being the same, how many times higher could a safe fall on the Moon be than on Earth (gravitational acceleration on the Moon is about 1/6 that of the Earth)?

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How many times higher could an astronaut jump on the Moon than on Earth if his takeoff speed is the same in both locations (gravitational acceleration on the Moon is about 1/6 of g size 12{g} {} on Earth)?

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Problems&Exercises

Assume air resistance is negligible unless otherwise stated.

Calculate the displacement and velocity at times of (a) 0.500, (b) 1.00, (c) 1.50, and (d) 2.00 s for a ball thrown straight up with an initial velocity of 15.0 m/s. Take the point of release to be y 0 = 0 size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } =0} {} .

(a) y 1 = 6 . 28 m size 12{y rSub { size 8{1} } =6 "." "28 m"} {} ; v 1 = 10 . 1 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{1} } ="10" "." "1 m/s"} {}

(b) y 2 = 10 . 1 m size 12{y rSub { size 8{2} } ="10" "." "1 m"} {} ; v 2 = 5 . 20 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{2} } =5 "." "20 m/s"} {}

(c) y 3 = 11 . 5 m ; v 3 = 0 .300 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{3} } =0 "." "300"" m/s"} {}

(d) y 4 = 10 .4 m ; v 4 = 4 .60 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{4} } = - 4 "." "60"" m/s"} {}

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Calculate the displacement and velocity at times of (a) 0.500, (b) 1.00, (c) 1.50, (d) 2.00, and (e) 2.50 s for a rock thrown straight down with an initial velocity of 14.0 m/s from the Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City. The roadway of this bridge is 70.0 m above the water.

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A basketball referee tosses the ball straight up for the starting tip-off. At what velocity must a basketball player leave the ground to rise 1.25 m above the floor in an attempt to get the ball?

v 0 = 4 . 95 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } =4 "." "95 m/s"} {}

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A rescue helicopter is hovering over a person whose boat has sunk. One of the rescuers throws a life preserver straight down to the victim with an initial velocity of 1.40 m/s and observes that it takes 1.8 s to reach the water. (a) List the knowns in this problem. (b) How high above the water was the preserver released? Note that the downdraft of the helicopter reduces the effects of air resistance on the falling life preserver, so that an acceleration equal to that of gravity is reasonable.

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A dolphin in an aquatic show jumps straight up out of the water at a velocity of 13.0 m/s. (a) List the knowns in this problem. (b) How high does his body rise above the water? To solve this part, first note that the final velocity is now a known and identify its value. Then identify the unknown, and discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it. After choosing the equation, show your steps in solving for the unknown, checking units, and discuss whether the answer is reasonable. (c) How long is the dolphin in the air? Neglect any effects due to his size or orientation.

(a) a = 9 . 80 m/s 2 size 12{a= - 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ; v 0 = 13 . 0 m/s size 12{v rSub { size 8{0} } ="13" "." "0 m/s"} {} ; y 0 = 0 m size 12{y rSub { size 8{0} } ="0 m"} {}

(b) v = 0 m/s . Unknown is distance y to top of trajectory, where velocity is zero. Use equation v 2 = v 0 2 + 2 a y y 0 size 12{v rSup { size 8{2} } =v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } +2a left (y - y rSub { size 8{0} } right )} {} because it contains all known values except for y , so we can solve for y size 12{y} {} . Solving for y size 12{y} {} gives

v 2 v 0 2 = 2 a y y 0 v 2 v 0 2 2 a = y y 0 y = y 0 + v 2 v 0 2 2 a = 0 m + 0 m/s 2 13.0 m/s 2 2 9.80 m /s 2 = 8.62 m alignl { stack { size 12{v rSup { size 8{2} } - v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } =2a left (y - y rSub { size 8{0} } right )} {} #{ {v rSup { size 8{2} } - v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2a} } =y - y rSub { size 8{0} } {} # y=y rSub { size 8{0} } + { {v rSup { size 8{2} } - v rSub { size 8{0} } rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2a} } =0`m+ { { left (0`"m/s" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } - left ("13" "." 0`"m/s" right ) rSup { size 8{2} } } over {2 left ( - 9 "." "80"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right )} } =8 "." "62"`m {}} } {}

Dolphins measure about 2 meters long and can jump several times their length out of the water, so this is a reasonable result.

(c) 2 . 65 s size 12{2 "." "65 s"} {}

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Questions & Answers

what is physics
faith Reply
what are the basic of physics
faith
tree physical properties of heat
Bello Reply
tree is a type of organism that grows very tall and have a wood trunk and branches with leaves... how is that related to heat? what did you smoke man?
what are the uses of dimensional analysis
Racheal Reply
Dimensional Analysis. The study of relationships between physical quantities with the help of their dimensions and units of measurements is called dimensional analysis. We use dimensional analysis in order to convert a unit from one form to another.
Emmanuel
meaning of OE and making of the subscript nc
ferunmi Reply
can I ask a question
Negash
kinetic functional force
Moyagabo Reply
what is a principal wave?
Haider Reply
A wave the movement of particles on rest position transferring energy from one place to another
Gabche
not wave. i need to know principal wave or waves.
Haider
principle wave is a superposition of wave when two or more waves meet at a point , whose amplitude is the algebraic sum of the amplitude of the waves
arshad
kindly define principal wave not principle wave (principle of super position) if u can understand my question
Haider
what is a model?
Ella Reply
hi
Muhanned
why are electros emitted only when the frequency of the incident radiation is greater than a certain value
ANSELEM Reply
b/c u have to know that for emission of electron need specific amount of energy which are gain by electron for emission . if incident rays have that amount of energy electron can be emitted, otherwise no way.
Nazir
search photoelectric effect on Google
Nazir
what is ohm's law
Pamilerin Reply
states that electric current in a given metallic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied between its end, provided that the temperature of the conductor and other physical factors such as length and cross-sectional area remains constant. mathematically V=IR
ANIEFIOK
hi
Gundala
A body travelling at a velocity of 30ms^-1 in a straight line is brought to rest by application of brakes. if it covers a distance of 100m during this period, find the retardation.
Pamilerin Reply
just use v^2-u^2=2as
Gundala
how often does electrolyte emits?
alhassan
just use +€^3.7°√π%-4¢•∆¥%
v^2-u^2=2as v=0,u=30,s=100 -30^2=2a*100 -900=200a a=-900/200 a=-4.5m/s^2
akinyemi
what is distribution of trade
Grace Reply
what's acceleration
Joshua Reply
The change in position of an object with respect to time
Mfizi
Acceleration is velocity all over time
Pamilerin
hi
Stephen
It's not It's the change of velocity relative to time
Laura
Velocity is the change of position relative to time
Laura
acceleration it is the rate of change in velocity with time
Stephen
acceleration is change in velocity per rate of time
Noara
what is ohm's law
Stephen
Ohm's law is related to resistance by which volatge is the multiplication of current and resistance ( U=RI)
Laura
acceleration is the rate of change. of displacement with time.
Radical
the rate of change of velocity is called acceleration
Asma
how i don understand
Willam Reply
how do I access the Multiple Choice Questions? the button never works and the essay one doesn't either
Savannah Reply
How do you determine the magnitude of force
Peace Reply
mass × acceleration OR Work done ÷ distance
Seema
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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