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Suppose we hold a tuning fork near the end of a tube that is closed at the other end, as shown in [link] , [link] , [link] , and [link] . If the tuning fork has just the right frequency, the air column in the tube resonates loudly, but at most frequencies it vibrates very little. This observation just means that the air column has only certain natural frequencies. The figures show how a resonance at the lowest of these natural frequencies is formed. A disturbance travels down the tube at the speed of sound and bounces off the closed end. If the tube is just the right length, the reflected sound arrives back at the tuning fork exactly half a cycle later, and it interferes constructively with the continuing sound produced by the tuning fork. The incoming and reflected sounds form a standing wave in the tube as shown.

The right side shows a vibrating tuning fork with right arm of fork moving right and left arm moving left. The left side shows a cone of resonance waves moving across a tube from the open end to the closed end. The tip of the cone is at the open end of the tube.
Resonance of air in a tube closed at one end, caused by a tuning fork. A disturbance moves down the tube.
The right side shows a vibrating tuning fork. The left side shows a cone of resonance waves reflected at the closed end of the tube. The tip of the cone is at the closed end of the tube, and the mouth of the cone is moving toward the open end of the tube.
Resonance of air in a tube closed at one end, caused by a tuning fork. The disturbance reflects from the closed end of the tube.
The left side shows a cone of resonance waves reflected at the closed end of the tube. The mouth of the cone has reached the open end of the tube  The right side shows a vibrating tuning fork with its left arm of fork moving rightward and its right arm moving leftward.
Resonance of air in a tube closed at one end, caused by a tuning fork. If the length of the tube L size 12{L} {} is just right, the disturbance gets back to the tuning fork half a cycle later and interferes constructively with the continuing sound from the tuning fork. This interference forms a standing wave, and the air column resonates.
The right side shows a vibrating tuning fork with its right arm moving rightward and left arm moving leftward. The left side shows a cone of resonance waves reflected at the closed end of the tube. The curve side of the cone has reached the tuning fork. The length of the tube is given to be equal to lambda divided by four.
Resonance of air in a tube closed at one end, caused by a tuning fork. A graph of air displacement along the length of the tube shows none at the closed end, where the motion is constrained, and a maximum at the open end. This standing wave has one-fourth of its wavelength in the tube, so that λ = 4 L size 12{λ=4L} {} .

The standing wave formed in the tube has its maximum air displacement (an antinode    ) at the open end, where motion is unconstrained, and no displacement (a node    ) at the closed end, where air movement is halted. The distance from a node to an antinode is one-fourth of a wavelength, and this equals the length of the tube; thus, λ = 4 L size 12{λ=4L} {} . This same resonance can be produced by a vibration introduced at or near the closed end of the tube, as shown in [link] . It is best to consider this a natural vibration of the air column independently of how it is induced.

A cone of resonance waves reflected at the closed end of the tube is shown. A tuning fork is shown to vibrate at a small opening above the closed end of the tube. The length of the tube L is given to be equal to lambda divided by four.
The same standing wave is created in the tube by a vibration introduced near its closed end.

Given that maximum air displacements are possible at the open end and none at the closed end, there are other, shorter wavelengths that can resonate in the tube, such as the one shown in [link] . Here the standing wave has three-fourths of its wavelength in the tube, or L = ( 3 / 4 ) λ size 12{L= \( 3/4 \) { {λ}} sup { ' }} {} , so that λ = 4 L / 3 size 12{ { {λ}} sup { ' }=4L/3} {} . Continuing this process reveals a whole series of shorter-wavelength and higher-frequency sounds that resonate in the tube. We use specific terms for the resonances in any system. The lowest resonant frequency is called the fundamental    , while all higher resonant frequencies are called overtones    . All resonant frequencies are integral multiples of the fundamental, and they are collectively called harmonics    . The fundamental is the first harmonic, the first overtone is the second harmonic, and so on. [link] shows the fundamental and the first three overtones (the first four harmonics) in a tube closed at one end.

Questions & Answers

how lesers can transmit information
mitul Reply
griffts bridge derivative
Ganesh Reply
below me
please explain; when a glass rod is rubbed with silk, it becomes positive and the silk becomes negative- yet both attracts dust. does dust have third types of charge that is attracted to both positive and negative
Timothy Reply
what is a conductor
Timothy
hello
Timothy
below me
why below you
Timothy
no....I said below me ...... nothing below .....ok?
dust particles contains both positive and negative charge particles
Mbutene
corona charge can verify
Stephen
when pressure increases the temperature remain what?
Ibrahim Reply
what is frequency
Mbionyi Reply
define precision briefly
Sujitha Reply
CT scanners do not detect details smaller than about 0.5 mm. Is this limitation due to the wavelength of x rays? Explain.
MITHRA Reply
hope this helps
what's critical angle
Mahmud Reply
The Critical Angle Derivation So the critical angle is defined as the angle of incidence that provides an angle of refraction of 90-degrees. Make particular note that the critical angle is an angle of incidence value. For the water-air boundary, the critical angle is 48.6-degrees.
dude.....next time Google it
okay whatever
Chidalu
pls who can give the definition of relative density?
Temiloluwa
the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard, usually water for a liquid or solid, and air for a gas.
Chidalu
What is momentum
aliyu Reply
mass ×velocity
Chidalu
it is the product of mass ×velocity of an object
Chidalu
how do I highlight a sentence]p? I select the sentence but get options like copy or web search but no highlight. tks. src
Sean Reply
then you can edit your work anyway you want
Wat is the relationship between Instataneous velocity
Oyinlusi Reply
Instantaneous velocity is defined as the rate of change of position for a time interval which is almost equal to zero
Astronomy
The potential in a region between x= 0 and x = 6.00 m lis V= a+ bx, where a = 10.0 V and b = -7.00 V/m. Determine (a) the potential atx=0, 3.00 m, and 6.00 m and (b) the magnitude and direction of the electric ficld at x =0, 3.00 m, and 6.00 m.
what is energy
Victor Reply
hi all?
GIDEON
hey
Bitrus
energy is when you finally get up of your lazy azz and do some real work 😁
what is physics
faith Reply
what are the basic of physics
faith
base itself is physics
Vishlawath
tree physical properties of heat
Bello Reply
tree is a type of organism that grows very tall and have a wood trunk and branches with leaves... how is that related to heat? what did you smoke man?
algum profe sabe .. Progressivo ou Retrógrado e Acelerado ou Retardado   V= +23 m/s        V= +5 m/s        0__>              0__> __________________________>        T= 0               T=6s
Claudia
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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