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v ( t ) = v max sin t T , size 12{v \( t \) = - v rSub { size 8{"max"} } "sin" left ( { {2π`t} over {T} } right )} {}

where v max = X / T = X k / m size 12{v rSub { size 8{"max"} } =2πX/T=X sqrt {k/m} } {} . The object has zero velocity at maximum displacement—for example, v = 0 size 12{v=0} {} when t = 0 size 12{t=0} {} , and at that time x = X size 12{x=X} {} . The minus sign in the first equation for v ( t ) size 12{v \( t \) } {} gives the correct direction for the velocity. Just after the start of the motion, for instance, the velocity is negative because the system is moving back toward the equilibrium point. Finally, we can get an expression for acceleration using Newton’s second law. [Then we have x ( t ) , v ( t ) , t , size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) ,t} {} and a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} , the quantities needed for kinematics and a description of simple harmonic motion.] According to Newton’s second law, the acceleration is a = F / m = kx / m size 12{a=F/m= ital "kx"/m} {} . So, a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} is also a cosine function:

a ( t ) = kX m cos t T . size 12{a \( t \) = - { { ital "kX"} over {m} } " cos " { {2π t} over {T} } } {}

Hence, a ( t ) size 12{a \( t \) } {} is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to x ( t ) .

[link] shows the simple harmonic motion of an object on a spring and presents graphs of x ( t ) , v ( t ), size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) `} {} and a ( t ) size 12{`a \( t \) } {} versus time.

In the figure at the top there are ten springboards with objects of different mass values tied to them. This makes some springs highly compressed some as loosely stretched and some at equilibrium, which are shown as red spherical shaped. Alongside the figure there is a scale given for different amplitude values as x equal to positive X, zero and negative X. the upward and downward pointing arrows are shown with a few springboards.  In the second figure there are three graphs. The first graph shows distance covered in form of a sine wave starting from a point x units on positive y-axis. The height of the wave above x-axis is marked as amplitude. The gap between two consecutive crests is marked as T. Below first graph there is another graph showing velocity in form of a sine wave starting from the origin downward. In the third graph below the second one, acceleration is shown in the form of sine wave starting from x units on the negative y-axis upward. In the last figure three position of a spring are shown. The first position shows the unstretched length of a spring pendulum. A hand is holding the bob of the pendulum. In the second position the equilibrium position of the spring and bob is shown. This position is lower the first one. In the third case the up and down oscillations of the spring pendulum are shown. The bob is moving x units in upward and downward directions alternatively.
Graphs of x ( t ) , v ( t ) , size 12{x \( t \) ,v \( t \) `} {} and a ( t ) size 12{`a \( t \) } {} versus t size 12{t} {} for the motion of an object on a spring. The net force on the object can be described by Hooke’s law, and so the object undergoes simple harmonic motion. Note that the initial position has the vertical displacement at its maximum value X size 12{X} {} ; v size 12{v} {} is initially zero and then negative as the object moves down; and the initial acceleration is negative, back toward the equilibrium position and becomes zero at that point.

The most important point here is that these equations are mathematically straightforward and are valid for all simple harmonic motion. They are very useful in visualizing waves associated with simple harmonic motion, including visualizing how waves add with one another.

Suppose you pluck a banjo string. You hear a single note that starts out loud and slowly quiets over time. Describe what happens to the sound waves in terms of period, frequency and amplitude as the sound decreases in volume.

Frequency and period remain essentially unchanged. Only amplitude decreases as volume decreases.

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A babysitter is pushing a child on a swing. At the point where the swing reaches x size 12{x} {} , where would the corresponding point on a wave of this motion be located?

x size 12{x} {} is the maximum deformation, which corresponds to the amplitude of the wave. The point on the wave would either be at the very top or the very bottom of the curve.

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Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring.

Masses and Springs

Section summary

  • Simple harmonic motion is oscillatory motion for a system that can be described only by Hooke’s law. Such a system is also called a simple harmonic oscillator.
  • Maximum displacement is the amplitude X size 12{X} {} . The period T size 12{T} {} and frequency f size 12{f} {} of a simple harmonic oscillator are given by

    T = m k size 12{T=2π sqrt { { {m} over {k} } } } {} and f = 1 k m , where m size 12{m} {} is the mass of the system.

  • Displacement in simple harmonic motion as a function of time is given by x ( t ) = X cos t T . size 12{x \( t \) =X"cos" { {2π`t} over {T} } } {}
  • The velocity is given by v ( t ) = v max sin t T , where v max = k / m X .
  • The acceleration is found to be a ( t ) = kX m cos t T . size 12{a \( t \) = - { { ital "kX"} over {m} } " cos " { {2π t} over {T} } } {}

Questions & Answers

how many subject is in physics
Adeshina Reply
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
Tamdy Reply
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Bethel Reply
what is Linear motion
Hamza Reply
straight line motion is called linear motion
then what
Amera
linear motion is a motion in a line, be it in a straight line or in a non straight line. It is the rate of change of distance.
Saeedul
Hi
aliyu
your are wrong Saeedul
Richard
Linear motion is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension
Jason
is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimensions. 
Praise
what is a classical electrodynamics?
Marga
what is dynamics
Marga
dynamic is the force that stimulates change or progress within the system or process
Oze
what is the formula to calculate wavelength of the incident light
David Reply
if a spring is is stiffness of 950nm-1 what work will be done in extending the spring by 60mmp
Hassan Reply
State the forms of energy
Samzy Reply
machanical
Ridwan
Word : Mechanical wave Definition : The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, e.g., Sound waves. \n\nOther Definition: The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, are called mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are also called elastic waves. Sound waves, water waves are examples of mechanical waves.t Definition: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.h
Clement Reply
correct
Akinpelu
what is mechanical wave
Akinpelu Reply
a wave which require material medium for its propagation
syed
The S.I unit for power is what?
Samuel Reply
watt
Okoli
Am I correct
Okoli
it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
Femi
yes
Femi
correct
Jaheim
kW
Akinpelu
OK that's right
Samuel
SI.unit of power is.watt=j/c.but kw.and Mw are bigger.umots
syed
What is physics
aish Reply
study of matter and its nature
Akinpelu
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
Uniform
why in circular motion, a tangential acceleration can change the magnitude of the velocity but not its direction
Syafiqah Reply
reasonable
Femi
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
MUSTAPHA
What is a wave
Mutuma Reply
Tramsmission of energy through a media
Mateo
is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
Akinpelu
mistakes thanks
Akinpelu
find the triple product of (A*B).C given that A =i + 4j, B=2i - 3j and C = i + k
Favour Reply
Difference between north seeking pole and south seeking pole
Stanley Reply
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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