# 16.3 Simple harmonic motion: a special periodic motion  (Page 3/7)

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$v\left(t\right)=-{v}_{\text{max}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\frac{2\pi t}{T}\right),$

where ${v}_{\text{max}}=2\pi X/T=X\sqrt{k/m}$ . The object has zero velocity at maximum displacement—for example, $v=0$ when $t=0$ , and at that time $x=X$ . The minus sign in the first equation for $v\left(t\right)$ gives the correct direction for the velocity. Just after the start of the motion, for instance, the velocity is negative because the system is moving back toward the equilibrium point. Finally, we can get an expression for acceleration using Newton’s second law. [Then we have $x\left(t\right),\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}v\left(t\right),\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}t,$ and $a\left(t\right)$ , the quantities needed for kinematics and a description of simple harmonic motion.] According to Newton’s second law, the acceleration is $a=F/m=\text{kx}/m$ . So, $a\left(t\right)$ is also a cosine function:

$a\left(t\right)=-\frac{\text{kX}}{m}\text{cos}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$

Hence, $a\left(t\right)$ is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to $x\left(t\right)$ .

[link] shows the simple harmonic motion of an object on a spring and presents graphs of $x\left(t\right),v\left(t\right),$ and $a\left(t\right)$ versus time.

The most important point here is that these equations are mathematically straightforward and are valid for all simple harmonic motion. They are very useful in visualizing waves associated with simple harmonic motion, including visualizing how waves add with one another.

Suppose you pluck a banjo string. You hear a single note that starts out loud and slowly quiets over time. Describe what happens to the sound waves in terms of period, frequency and amplitude as the sound decreases in volume.

Frequency and period remain essentially unchanged. Only amplitude decreases as volume decreases.

A babysitter is pushing a child on a swing. At the point where the swing reaches $x$ , where would the corresponding point on a wave of this motion be located?

$x$ is the maximum deformation, which corresponds to the amplitude of the wave. The point on the wave would either be at the very top or the very bottom of the curve.

## Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring.

## Section summary

• Simple harmonic motion is oscillatory motion for a system that can be described only by Hooke’s law. Such a system is also called a simple harmonic oscillator.
• Maximum displacement is the amplitude $X$ . The period $T$ and frequency $f$ of a simple harmonic oscillator are given by

$T=2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}$ and $f=\frac{1}{2\pi }\sqrt{\frac{k}{m}}$ , where $m$ is the mass of the system.

• Displacement in simple harmonic motion as a function of time is given by $x\left(t\right)=X\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$
• The velocity is given by $v\left(t\right)=-{v}_{\text{max}}\text{sin}\frac{2\pi \text{t}}{T}$ , where ${v}_{\text{max}}=\sqrt{k/m}X$ .
• The acceleration is found to be $a\left(t\right)=-\frac{\mathrm{kX}}{m}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$

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the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
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Praise
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a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
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the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
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then what
Amera
linear motion is a motion in a line, be it in a straight line or in a non straight line. It is the rate of change of distance.
Saeedul
Hi
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Richard
Linear motion is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension
Jason
is a one-dimensional motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimensions.
Praise
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what is dynamics
Marga
dynamic is the force that stimulates change or progress within the system or process
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Word : Mechanical wave Definition : The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, e.g., Sound waves. \n\nOther Definition: The waves, which need a material medium for their propagation, are called mechanical waves. Mechanical waves are also called elastic waves. Sound waves, water waves are examples of mechanical waves.t Definition: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; e.g. sound wave or water wave as opposed to electromagnetic wave.h
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Akinpelu
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a wave which require material medium for its propagation
syed
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watt
Okoli
Am I correct
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it can be in kilowatt, megawatt and so
Femi
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Femi
correct
Jaheim
kW
Akinpelu
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Samuel
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syed
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study of matter and its nature
Akinpelu
The word physics comes from a Greek word Physicos which means Nature.The Knowledge of Nature. It is branch of science which deals with the matter and energy and interaction between them.
Uniform
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reasonable
Femi
because it is balanced by the inward acceleration otherwise known as centripetal acceleration
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Tramsmission of energy through a media
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is the disturbance that carry materials as propagation from one medium to another
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