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Carnot’s interesting result implies that 100% efficiency would be possible only if T c = 0 K size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } =0" K"} {} —that is, only if the cold reservoir were at absolute zero, a practical and theoretical impossibility. But the physical implication is this—the only way to have all heat transfer go into doing work is to remove all thermal energy, and this requires a cold reservoir at absolute zero.

It is also apparent that the greatest efficiencies are obtained when the ratio T c / T h size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } /T rSub { size 8{h} } } {} is as small as possible. Just as discussed for the Otto cycle in the previous section, this means that efficiency is greatest for the highest possible temperature of the hot reservoir and lowest possible temperature of the cold reservoir. (This setup increases the area inside the closed loop on the PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram; also, it seems reasonable that the greater the temperature difference, the easier it is to divert the heat transfer to work.) The actual reservoir temperatures of a heat engine are usually related to the type of heat source and the temperature of the environment into which heat transfer occurs. Consider the following example.

Part a of the figure shows a graph of pressure P versus volume V for a Carnot cycle. The pressure P is along the Y axis and the volume V is along the X axis. The graph shows a complete cycle A B C D. The path begins at point A, then it moves smoothly down till point B along the direction of the X axis. This is marked as an isotherm at temperature T sub h. Then the curve drops down further, along a different curve, from point B to point C. This is marked as adiabatic expansion. The curve rises from point C to point D along the direction opposite to that of A B. This is also an isotherm but at temperature T sub c. The last part of the curve rises up from point D back to A along a direction opposite to that of B C. This is marked as adiabatic compression. The path C D is lower than path A B. Heat Q sub h enters the system, as shown by a bold arrow to the curve A B. Heat Q sub c leaves the system as shown by a bold arrow near C D. Part b of the diagram shows an internal combustion engine represented as a circle. The hot reservoir is a rectangular section at the top of the circle shown at temperature T sub h. A cold reservoir is shown as a rectangular section in the bottom part of the circle at temperature T sub c. Heat Q sub h enters the heat engine as shown by a bold arrow; work W is produced as output, shown to leave the system, and the remaining heat Q sub c is returned back to the cold reservoir, as shown by a bold arrow toward it.
PV size 12{ ital "PV"} {} diagram for a Carnot cycle, employing only reversible isothermal and adiabatic processes. Heat transfer Q h size 12{Q rSub { size 8{h} } } {} occurs into the working substance during the isothermal path AB, which takes place at constant temperature T h size 12{T rSub { size 8{h} } } {} . Heat transfer Q c size 12{Q rSub { size 8{c} } } {} occurs out of the working substance during the isothermal path CD, which takes place at constant temperature T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} . The net work output W size 12{W} {} equals the area inside the path ABCDA. Also shown is a schematic of a Carnot engine operating between hot and cold reservoirs at temperatures T h size 12{T rSub { size 8{h} } } {} and T c size 12{T rSub { size 8{c} } } {} . Any heat engine using reversible processes and operating between these two temperatures will have the same maximum efficiency as the Carnot engine.

Maximum theoretical efficiency for a nuclear reactor

A nuclear power reactor has pressurized water at 300 º C size 12{"300"°C} {} . (Higher temperatures are theoretically possible but practically not, due to limitations with materials used in the reactor.) Heat transfer from this water is a complex process (see [link] ). Steam, produced in the steam generator, is used to drive the turbine-generators. Eventually the steam is condensed to water at 27 º C size 12{"27"°C} {} and then heated again to start the cycle over. Calculate the maximum theoretical efficiency for a heat engine operating between these two temperatures.

Diagram shows a schematic diagram of a pressurized water nuclear reactor and the steam turbines that convert work into electrical energy. There is a pressure vessel in the middle, dome shaped at the ends. This has a nuclear core in it. The core is a small square in the center of the reactor. Control rods are shown as sticks of equal length attached to the core. The pressure vessel has some coolant tubes passing through it and then back to a steam chamber. These coolant tubes contain a coolant liquid that transports the heat from the pressure vessel to the steam chamber. This whole system is enclosed in another dome shaped containment structure of steel. The water supply to steam chamber and the steam outlet are seen to come out of this chamber. This steam is now shown to run two steam turbines, one a high pressure one and another low pressure one. The turbines are nearly triangular and segmented in shape. The steam turbine in turn generates power using a turbine generator, which is attached to the turbine system. The turbines are again housed in another chamber which gets the steam from the steam chamber and return the steam as water back to the steam chamber with pipes. A coolant tower is shown near the turbine system, which is shown to supply cool water in tubes to the turbine system to cool the steam back to water.
Schematic diagram of a pressurized water nuclear reactor and the steam turbines that convert work into electrical energy. Heat exchange is used to generate steam, in part to avoid contamination of the generators with radioactivity. Two turbines are used because this is less expensive than operating a single generator that produces the same amount of electrical energy. The steam is condensed to liquid before being returned to the heat exchanger, to keep exit steam pressure low and aid the flow of steam through the turbines (equivalent to using a lower-temperature cold reservoir). The considerable energy associated with condensation must be dissipated into the local environment; in this example, a cooling tower is used so there is no direct heat transfer to an aquatic environment. (Note that the water going to the cooling tower does not come into contact with the steam flowing over the turbines.)

Questions & Answers

Why is the sky blue...?
Star Reply
It's filtered light from the 2 forms of radiation emitted from the sun. It's mainly filtered UV rays. There's a theory titled Scatter Theory that covers this topic
Mike
A heating coil of resistance 30π is connected to a 240v supply for 5min to boil a quantity of water in a vessel of heat capacity 200jk. If the initial temperature of water is 20°c and it specific heat capacity is 4200jkgk calculate the mass of water in a vessel
fasawe Reply
A thin equi convex lens is placed on a horizontal plane mirror and a pin held 20 cm vertically above the lens concise in position with its own image the space between the undersurface of d lens and the mirror is filled with water (refractive index =1•33)and then to concise with d image d pin has to
Azummiri Reply
Be raised until its distance from d lens is 27cm find d radius of curvature
Azummiri
what happens when a nuclear bomb and atom bomb bomb explode add the same time near each other
FlAsH Reply
A monkey throws a coconut straight upwards from a coconut tree with a velocity of 10 ms-1. The coconut tree is 30 m high. Calculate the maximum height of the coconut from the top of the coconut tree? Can someone answer my question
Fatinizzah Reply
v2 =u2 - 2gh 02 =10x10 - 2x9.8xh h = 100 ÷ 19.6 answer = 30 - h.
Ramonyai
why is the north side is always referring to n side of magnetic
sam Reply
who is a nurse
Chilekwa Reply
A nurse is a person who takes care of the sick
Bukola
a nurse is also like an assistant to the doctor
Gadjawa
explain me wheatstone bridge
Malik Reply
good app
samuel
Wheatstone bridge is an instrument used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit, one leg of which includes the unknown component.
MUHD
Rockwell Software is Rockwell Automation’s "Retro Encabulator". Now, basically the only new principle involved is that instead of power being generated by the relative motion of conductors and fluxes, it’s produced by the modial interaction of magneto-reluctance and capacitive diractance. The origin
Chip
what refractive index
Adjah Reply
write a comprehensive note on primary colours
Harrison Reply
relationship between refractive index, angle of minimum deviation and angle of prism
Harrison
Who knows the formula for binding energy,and what each variable or notation stands for?
Agina Reply
1. A black thermocouple measures the temperature in the chamber with black walls.if the air around the thermocouple is 200 C,the walls are at 1000 C,and the heat transfer constant is 15.compute the temperature gradient
Tikiso Reply
what is the relationship between G and g
Olaiya Reply
G is the u. constant, as g stands for grav, accelerate at a discreet point
Mark
Is that all about it?
Olaiya
pls explain in details
Olaiya
G is a universal constant
Mark
g stands for the gravitational acceleration point. hope this helps you.
Mark
balloon TD is at a gravitational acceleration at a specific point
Mark
I'm sorry this doesn't take dictation very well.
Mark
Can anyone explain the Hooke's law of elasticity?
Olaiya Reply
extension of a spring is proportional to the force applied so long as the force applied does not exceed the springs capacity according to my textbook
Amber
does this help?
Amber
Yes, thanks
Olaiya
so any solid can be compressed how compressed is dependent upon how much force is applied F=deltaL
Amber
sorry, the equation is F=KdeltaL delta is the triangle symbol and L is length so the change in length is proportional to amount of Force applied I believe that is what Hookes law means. anyone catch any mistakes here please correct me :)
Amber
I think it is used only for solids and not liquids, isn't it?
Olaiya
basically as long as you dont exceed the elastic limit the object should return to it original form but if you exceed this limit the object will not return to original shape as it will break
Amber
Thanks for the explanation
Olaiya
yh, liquids don't apply here, that should be viscosity
Chiamaka
hope it helps 😅
Amber
also, an object doesnt have to break necessarily, but it will have a new form :)
Amber
Yes
Olaiya
yeah, I think it is for solids but maybe there is a variation for liquids? that I am not sure of
Amber
ok
Olaiya
good luck!
Amber
Same
Olaiya
aplease i need a help on spcific latent heat of vibrations
Bilgate
specific latent heat of vaporisation
Bilgate
how many kilometers makes a mile
Margaret Reply
about 1.6 kilometres.
Faizyab
near about 1.67 kilometers
Aakash
equal to 1.609344 kilometers.
MUHD
Practice Key Terms 3

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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