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  • Explain the concept of pressure the in human body.
  • Explain systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
  • Describe pressures in the eye, lungs, spinal column, bladder, and skeletal system.

Pressure in the body

Next to taking a person’s temperature and weight, measuring blood pressure is the most common of all medical examinations. Control of high blood pressure is largely responsible for the significant decreases in heart attack and stroke fatalities achieved in the last three decades. The pressures in various parts of the body can be measured and often provide valuable medical indicators. In this section, we consider a few examples together with some of the physics that accompanies them.

[link] lists some of the measured pressures in mm Hg, the units most commonly quoted.

Typical pressures in humans
Body system Gauge pressure in mm Hg
Blood pressures in large arteries (resting)
Maximum (systolic) 100–140
Minimum (diastolic) 60–90
Blood pressure in large veins 4–15
Eye 12–24
Brain and spinal fluid (lying down) 5–12
Bladder
While filling 0–25
When full 100–150
Chest cavity between lungs and ribs −8 to −4
Inside lungs −2 to +3
Digestive tract
Esophagus −2
Stomach 0–20
Intestines 10–20
Middle ear <1

Blood pressure

Common arterial blood pressure measurements typically produce values of 120 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic and diastolic pressures. Both pressures have health implications. When systolic pressure is chronically high, the risk of stroke and heart attack is increased. If, however, it is too low, fainting is a problem. Systolic pressure increases dramatically during exercise to increase blood flow and returns to normal afterward. This change produces no ill effects and, in fact, may be beneficial to the tone of the circulatory system. Diastolic pressure can be an indicator of fluid balance. When low, it may indicate that a person is hemorrhaging internally and needs a transfusion. Conversely, high diastolic pressure indicates a ballooning of the blood vessels, which may be due to the transfusion of too much fluid into the circulatory system. High diastolic pressure is also an indication that blood vessels are not dilating properly to pass blood through. This can seriously strain the heart in its attempt to pump blood.

Blood leaves the heart at about 120 mm Hg but its pressure continues to decrease (to almost 0) as it goes from the aorta to smaller arteries to small veins (see [link] ). The pressure differences in the circulation system are caused by blood flow through the system as well as the position of the person. For a person standing up, the pressure in the feet will be larger than at the heart due to the weight of the blood ( P = hρg ) size 12{ \( P=hρg \) } {} . If we assume that the distance between the heart and the feet of a person in an upright position is 1.4 m, then the increase in pressure in the feet relative to that in the heart (for a static column of blood) is given by

Δ P = Δ hρg = 1.4 m 1050 kg /m 3 9.80 m /s 2 = 1 . 4 × 10 4 Pa = 108 mm Hg . size 12{ΔP=ρ ital "gh"= left ("1050"`"kgm" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } right ) left (9 "." "80"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right ) left (1 "." 4`m right )=1 "." 4 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"Pa"="108"`"mm"`"Hg"} {}

Increase in pressure in the feet of a person

Δ P = Δ hρg = 1.4 m 1050 kg /m 3 9.80 m /s 2 = 1 . 4 × 10 4 Pa = 108 mm Hg . size 12{ΔP=ρ ital "gh"= left ("1050"`"kgm" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } right ) left (9 "." "80"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } right ) left (1 "." 4`m right )=1 "." 4 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } `"Pa"="108"`"mm"`"Hg"} {}

Questions & Answers

resistance of thermometer in relation to temperature
Ifeanyi Reply
how
Bernard
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Paul
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Igwe Reply
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Anderson
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Gift
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grace Reply
Divide with 3.6
Mateo
multiply by (km/1000m) x (3600 s/h) -> 3.6
Muhammad
2 how heat loss is prevented in a vacuum flask
Abdullah Reply
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Helen
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Adarsh
due to non in contact mean no conduction and no convection bec of non conducting base and walls and also their is a grape between the layer like to take the example of thermo flask
Abdul
dimensions v²=u²+2at
Lagben Reply
what if time is not given in finding the average velocity?
Alan Reply
the magnetic circuit of a certain of the flux paths in each of the long and short sides being 25cm and 20cm reprectielectrove. there is an air gap of 2mm long in one the long sides if a flux density of 0.8weber/m is to produce in the magnet of 1500 turns..
Daniel Reply
How do you calculate precision
Sacky Reply
what module is that?
Fillemon
Chemisty 1A?
Fillemon
No it has something to do with measurements bro... What we did today in class
Sacky
Tah bra honestly I didn't understand a thing in that class..when re your Tutorials?
Fillemon
Friday bro... But the topics we did are in this app... Just try to master them quickly before the test dates... Are you done with the Maths sheet
Sacky
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Anderson
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Fillemon
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Emi
There are very large numbers of charged particles in most objects. Why, then, don’t most objects exhibit static electricity?
Bilkisu Reply
Because there's an equal number of negative and positive charges... objects are neutral in nature
NELSON
when a ball rolls on a smooth level ground,the motion of its centre is?
Mary Reply
what is electro magnetic field?
Mary
electromagnetic field is a special type of field been produced by electric charges..!!! like the word electro from Electricity and the word magnetic from Magnetism.. so it is more of a join field..!!!
NELSON
Electromagnetic field is caused by moving electric charge
Muhammad
when a ball rolls on a smooth level ground,the motion of its centre is?
Mumeh
what's the relationship btw displacement and position
Declan Reply
displacement is the change of position 8======✊=D 💦💦
Anderson
what is the meaning of elasticity
Pele Reply
is the ability of a material to or any object to expand to a limit point
king
this is about kinematics you bonk
Emi
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, College physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 27, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11406/1.9
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