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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Pharmacology (MCQ) [Nervous System]
Download Pharmacology 3 Quiz PDF eBook
38 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Pharmacology (MCQ) [Nervous System] Quiz

Question: Nicotinic cholinoceptors are ionotropic receptors. How many subunits form the ion channel?







Question: Noradrenaline is the neurotransmitter released from all (except the sweat glands) of the postganglionic neurons of


the sympathetic NS

the parasympathetic NS

both the parasympathetic and sympathetic NS

Question: Noradrenaline is


a hormone

a neurotransmitter

Question: Efferent fibres carry signals ..... the CNS.




Question: The neurotransmitter Acetylcholine is released from ALL preganglionic neurons of the ganglia of .....


the sympathetic NS

the parasympathetic NS

both the para-and sympathetic NS

Question: The preganglionic neurons of the ANS arise in


brain stem

basal horn of spinal cord

lateral horn of spinal cord


dorsal horn of spinal cord

Question: Which one of the following is not a effect due to parasympathetic NS inversion?


Slowing of the heart rate

Constriction of the pupils

Contraction of the bladder

Stimulating the liver to export

Increasing the gut motility

Question: The Parasympathetic NS is directly stemmed from...


Autonomic NS

Sympathetic NS

Peripheral NS

Somatic NS

Question: Noradrenaline at the post-receptor of a synapse acts upon which type of receptors in the ANS


muscarinic cholinoceptors (mAChR)

nicotinic cholinoceptors (nAChR)

Adrenoceptors (alpha and beta)

Question: Toxins (e.g. Tetrodotoxin (TTX), Botulinum, Dendrotoxins) block which stage of the cholinergic release of ACh at the NMJ?







Question: Ach is released from all postganglionic neurons of


the sympathetic NS only

the parasympathetic NS only

both the sympathetic and parasympathetic NS.

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Anindyo Mukhopadhyay
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