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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
Pesticides/Small animal poison Test
Download Pesticides Exam PDF eBook
20 Pages
English US
Educational Materials

Sample Questions from the Pesticides/Small animal poison Test Exam

Question: The most appropriate treatment for Pyrethrin and Pyrethroid toxicity is bathing animal Flea/tick pet shampoo. True/false




Question: Amitraz is an alpha 2 agonist of the CNS which results in sedation. Which drug would be used to treat Amitraz poisoning?


atropine sulfate


2- PAM


Both yohimbine and atipamezole

Question: Which of the following is considered treatment for organophosphate but cannot be used for carbamate poisoning?


Atropine Sulfate (muscarinic antag)

2 - PAM

Gastric Lavage

activated charcoal

All can be sued to treat both organophosphates and carbamate poisoning

Question: Which of the following statements regarding organochlorines is FALSE?


Toxicity is neurological

Organochlorines are highly persistent and bioaccumulate

Chronic organochlorine exposure can lead to eggshell thinning and reduced fertility in birds

Mechanism of action is either by inhibition of Na+ influx and K + efflux or inhibiting GABA receptors

Organochlorines are highly volatile and exposure is most likely via inhalation

Question: What is the mechanism of action of Fipronil (Frontline)?


Fipronil inhibits the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ which leads to an energy deficiency in cells.

Fipronil binds to the membrane lipid phase near the Na+ channel.

Fipronil inhibits Na+ influx and K efflux

Fipronil noncompetitively binds GABA receptors and blocks Cl- influx

Fipronil is an AchE inhibitor

Question: Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) by carbamates is considered reversible . True/False




Question: Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids?


Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids are rapidly hydrolyzed and metabolized with majority eliminated 12-24hrs.

Inhalation exposure of Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids is low

Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids are hydrophilic in nature and do not distribute in fat or nervous tissue

Mammalian Na+ channels are 1000x more sensitive than the insect counterpart

Cats do not have adverse reactions to Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids because they are a more intelligent species and know not to lick this product off a dog.

Question: What is the specific antidote for organochlorine exposure?


Atropine sulfate

2- PAM

Methylene Blue


There is no specific treatment for organochlorines

Question: Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is the mechanism of action of which pesticide?







Question: Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) by organophosphates is reversible. True /False




Question: Which of the following pesticides is toxic to herding breeds with a mutation in the ABCB1 transporter?







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