<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

A chart of the amount of venom expended by different snakes for different prey sizes.
Amount of venom expended per hit by large and medium rattlesnakes on large and small prey. This figure shows that rattlesnakes inject different amounts of venom depending on prey size. It supports the idea that rattlesnakes have control of some sort on the lethality of a bite. (Recreated from Hayes, Lavin-Murcio&Kardong 1995)

A chart of the relationship between color and attack rate of different snakes.
Percent of time solid colored model snakes were attacked compared to models of the same base color with viper patterns. This shows that predators learn to avoid venomous snakes without bright warning colors, in support of the hypothesis that bright colors are not necessary for a Batesian mimicry system (Recreated from Wüster et al. 2004).

In both these cases, the non venomous snake increases its survivability by mimicking the venomous snake to the point that predators think they are the same species (and therefore themselves venomous). They are very good examples because the mimic does not gain any conspicuous colors that would hinder it from catching prey or make it more likely to be spotted by would be predators. There are two other forms of defensive mimicry that are subtypes of Batesian mimicry called Mullerian mimicry and Mertensian mimicry , which are forms of defensive mimicry between multiple venomous species and are explained with the coral snake mimics in [link] .

Olfactory mimicry

Another possible type of defensive mimicry is olfactory mimicry . It has been shown in the past that a few plants mimic the smell of dead meat or female insects to attract pollinators into the flowers. However, many scientists were skeptical of the possibility for defensive mimicry based solely on olfactory cues without any visual ones. In 1975, James A. Czalpicki and his colleagues performed an experiment that showed olfactory mimicry could theoretically serve as a form of defense (Czalpicki, Porter,&Wilcoxon 1975). During the experiment, several garter snakes were divided into two groups. Members of both groups were mostly fed minnows, but they were also fed night crawler worms on occasion. The experimental group was given a small dose of lithium chloride, which would make them mildly ill, while the control group was injected with saline solution. The results showed that the experimental group later rejected minnows that were dipped in “night crawler surface extract” so they smelled like the worms, but didn’t reject regular minnows. The control group did not reject the minnows that smelled like worms. Also, as a further experiment, they ran the same test but included some minnows made to smell like salamanders, without injection of LiCl, which neither group rejected. This showed that the experimental group rejected the earlier minnows because they smelled specifically like night crawlers and not because they smelled different from their normal meals for the previous several weeks. It seems though, that there have not been any cases found in the wild were olfactory mimicry is used by a species specifically for defensive purposes to date.

Death feigning

Another interesting defensive mimicry behavior in snakes is the well known death feigning of American hognose snakes, Heterodon spp . When threatened, a hognose snake flips onto its back and starts writhing around as if it is about to die from serious illness. This is followed by bloating and excretion (Munyer 1967). The snakes perform this display in water as well as on land, but tend to move more quickly to bloating and stillness when in water. When flipped back upright, the snake immediately flips onto its back again and continues the bluff. But what evolutionary purpose does death feigning really have? One possible explanation, and the most likely for hognose snakes, is that feigning death in such a dramatic and disturbing way will make the predator think that the snake has a disease or parasites and will not eat it for that reason (Milius 2006). It has also been discussed with insect and fish species that feigning death can provide defense by way of the bad odor emitted by many species displaying this behavior or can even be a form of aggressive mimicry that lures unsuspecting scavengers near the organism, which then 'comes back to life' and eats them. Some cases of similar behavior have been misinterpreted as death feigning, but are actually a form of defense where the bloating of the individual just makes it hard to swallow.

Questions & Answers

explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
hi mam
Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask