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Useful valved trumpets began to be produced in the early 19th century. The introduction of the valve freed the instrument to play any type of melody in any key in any part of its range. Earlier trumpets came in many different keys, so that players in the lower register could choose an instrument that suited the key of a particular piece of music. With the introduction of valved trumpets, which can play the entire chromatic scale easily, the C and B flat instruments became the most popular, with trumpets in other keys becoming increasingly rare.

The cornet developed from the post horn, a small, valveless instrument which was used by postal carriers to announce the arrival in town of the mail. The flugelhorn evolved from a German bugle used by each wing of beaters during a hunt. ( Flugel is German for "wing".)


Trumpet is featured in many orchestral works. Some easy-to-find examples are Rossini's William Tell Overture, Bach's Brandenburg Concerto #2 , the "Rondeau" from Mouret's First Symphonic Suite (the "Masterpiece Theater" theme), and Ravel's orchestration of Moussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition .

The "110 cornets" mentioned in the well-known "76 Trombones" song from The Music Man underscores the important place that the trumpet and particularly the cornet have always held in band music and marches. Listen for the trumpet in march melodies, in band music such as Anderson's Bugler's Holiday , in concert wind ensemble music, and in fanfares such as Arnaud's Bugler's Dream (best known as the "Olympic Theme" fanfare) and Copland's Fanfare for the Common Man .

The trumpet's long association with marches, fanfares, and military music is also used in classical music. For example, the "Fest" march from Wagner's Tannhauser and the "Triumphal March" from Aida , the march from Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker , and "The Trumpet Shall Sound" from Handel's Messiah .

If jazz or pop trumpet and cornet sound more interesting to you, look for recordings of Louis Armstrong, Dizzie Gillespie, Wynton Marsalis, or Miles Davis (who popularized the use of the flugelhorn in jazz), to name just a few. The Herb Alpert band also featured trumpets with catchy jazz rhythms. Trumpet (or cornet) is also featured in "big band" and dixieland jazz, and in pop bands with brass sections. For piccolo trumpet, listen to the Beatle's "Penny Lane".

If you would like to listen to solo trumpet, look for Clark's Trumpet Voluntary , or for one of many trumpet concertos written by various composers, including Haydn and Hummel. Most small brass ensembles also include trumpets. Easiest to find in this category are music by Gabrieli or brass quintets.

Practical information for composers and arrangers

There are non-transposing concert-pitch ("C") trumpets and cornets, but there are also B flat instruments (cornets are particularly likely to be pitched in B flat), which are transposing instruments . Since most players only have one instrument, it is a good idea to include both a C and a B flat version of every trumpet or cornet part that you write, unless you are certain which type of instrument your player will have.

For young or beginning players, notes above the staff and below written middle C should be avoided. Exceptional players can get notes well above the C above the staff, but it's not a good idea to write notes in this range, unless you are certain your player can play them. Even experienced players will have trouble playing parts with long sections of the music above the staff, or very tricky passages in the upper register.

In general, though, the trumpet and cornet are the most agile of the orchestral brass, capable of playing fast notes and large leaps. Being high-pitched brass instruments, they are also both very capable of being heard over large ensembles or in outdoor performances. Due to long-standing associations with certain types of music, both instruments are ideal for giving tunes either a military/fanfare or a jazz/pop flavor. Differences in timbre between trumpets and cornets are slight and will not be noticed by most listeners.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A parent's guide to band. OpenStax CNX. Jun 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10428/1.1
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