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    Right claim justification framework

  • Essential: To say that a right is essential to autonomy is to say that it highlights a capacity whose exercise is necessary tothe general exercise of autonomy. For example, autonomy is based on certain knowledge skills. Hence, we have a right to an education todevelop the knowledge required by autonomy, or we have a right to the knowledge that produces informed consent. In general, rightsare devices for recognizing certain capacities as essential to autonomy and respecting individuals in their exercise of thesecapacities.
  • Vulnerable: The exercise of the capacity protected under the right needs protection. Individuals may interfere with us in ourattempt to exercise our rights. Groups, corporations, and governments might overwhelm us and prevent us from exercising ouressential capacities. In short, the exercise of the capacity requires some sort of protection. For example, an individual’sprivacy is vulnerable to violation. People can gain access to our computers without our authorization and view the information wehave stored. They can even use this information to harm us in some way. The right to privacy, thus, protects certain capacities ofaction that are vulnerable to interference from others. Individual and social energy needs to be expended to protect ourprivacy.
  • Feasible: Rights make claims over others; they imply dutiesthat others have. These claims must not deprive the correlative duty-holders of anything essential. In other words, my rightsclaims over you are not so extensive as to deprive you of your rights. My right to life should not deprive you of your right toself-protection were I to attack you. Thus, the scope of my right claims over you and the rest of society are limited by your abilityto reciprocate. I cannot push my claims over you to recognize and respect my rights to the point where you are deprived of somethingessential.

    Types of duty correlative to a right

  • Duty not to deprive: We have a basic duty not to violate the rights of others. This entails that we must both recognize andrespect these rights. For example, computing specialists have the duty not to deprive others of their rights to privacy by hackinginto private files.
  • Duty to prevent deprivation: Professionals, because of their knowledge, are often in the position to prevent others fromdepriving third parties of their rights. For example, a computing specialist may find that a client is not taking sufficient pains toprotect the confidentiality of information about customers. Outsiders could access this information and use it without theconsent of the customers. The computing specialist could prevent this violation of privacy by advising the client on ways to protectthis information, say, through encryption. The computing specialist is not about to violate the customers’ rights to privacy. Butbecause of special knowledge and skill, the computing specialist may be in a position to prevent others from violating thisright.
  • Duty to aid the deprived: Finally, when others have their rights violated, we have the duty to aid them in their recoveryfrom damages. For example, a computing specialist might have a duty to serve as an expert witness in a lawsuit in which the plaintiffseeks to recover damages suffered from having her right to privacy violated. Part of this duty would include accurate, impartial, andexpert testimony.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Corporate governance. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2007 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10396/1.10
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