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McCaskey (1974) discussed how to plan without goals, beginning with the identification of arenas of activity andpreferred behavior patterns within the organizational culture that relate to the contemplated organizational improvement. The leadwould also strive to discern which recent activities or events were pleasing to the school’s members, so that implementation activities could be designed of a similar nature. Once these shared arenas ofactivity and preferences have been identified, the leader can shape the implementation process in directions consonant with“who they are and what they like to do”(McCaskey, 1974, p. 283). This reduces resistance and does not limit individualism nearly as muchas the rational, goal-based approach. It also allows for greater flexibility in adapting to the changing environment.

After a planning approach has been selected, the next step in this initial phases of the school improvementprocess is to assess the school’s capacity and willingness to change (Armenakis, Harris, and Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983;Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Fullan, 1991; Hall&Hord, 2001; Huberman&Miles, 1984; Louis&Miles, 1990; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984; Prochaska et al., 1994; Prochaska, Redding,&Evers, 1997); this is often referred to as organizational readiness for change. Again,readiness for change is, in good measure, a function of the school’s climate and culture (Armenakis, Harris,&Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983; Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Evans, 2001; Maurer, 2001; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984). Fullan (1991) found that those schools whose culture iscompatible with change, in general, and with the specific changes involved in the current school improvement project, are most likelyto be successful in their improvement effort.

The final step in the planning phase of the school improvement process is to decide to move ahead withimplementation, undertake some organizational development prior to implementation, or to terminate the school improvement process, atleast for the present time. As with the decisions made to this point in the process, the school’s culture and climate may well be major factors in this decision. If extensive changes in culturewould be necessary before implementation could be attempted or if the school’s climate were not conducive to undertaking a major change effort, it is likely that the decision would be to abort theschool improvement process. On the other hand, if the school’s culture were largely compatible with the planned changes and if theclimate were healthy, these might tip the scale in favor of proceeding either with some organizational development or directlywith the implementation of the planned changes.

Interactions in the Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase of most school improvement processes, three major elements take center stage: (a)change, (b) motivation, and (c) professional development. All three affect, and are affected by, the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

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Crow Reply
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RAW Reply
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Damian
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Brian Reply
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Rafiq
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Damian
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Kyle
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Joe
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research.net
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Anassong Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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