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McCaskey (1974) discussed how to plan without goals, beginning with the identification of arenas of activity andpreferred behavior patterns within the organizational culture that relate to the contemplated organizational improvement. The leadwould also strive to discern which recent activities or events were pleasing to the school’s members, so that implementation activities could be designed of a similar nature. Once these shared arenas ofactivity and preferences have been identified, the leader can shape the implementation process in directions consonant with“who they are and what they like to do”(McCaskey, 1974, p. 283). This reduces resistance and does not limit individualism nearly as muchas the rational, goal-based approach. It also allows for greater flexibility in adapting to the changing environment.

After a planning approach has been selected, the next step in this initial phases of the school improvementprocess is to assess the school’s capacity and willingness to change (Armenakis, Harris, and Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983;Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Fullan, 1991; Hall&Hord, 2001; Huberman&Miles, 1984; Louis&Miles, 1990; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984; Prochaska et al., 1994; Prochaska, Redding,&Evers, 1997); this is often referred to as organizational readiness for change. Again,readiness for change is, in good measure, a function of the school’s climate and culture (Armenakis, Harris,&Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983; Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Evans, 2001; Maurer, 2001; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984). Fullan (1991) found that those schools whose culture iscompatible with change, in general, and with the specific changes involved in the current school improvement project, are most likelyto be successful in their improvement effort.

The final step in the planning phase of the school improvement process is to decide to move ahead withimplementation, undertake some organizational development prior to implementation, or to terminate the school improvement process, atleast for the present time. As with the decisions made to this point in the process, the school’s culture and climate may well be major factors in this decision. If extensive changes in culturewould be necessary before implementation could be attempted or if the school’s climate were not conducive to undertaking a major change effort, it is likely that the decision would be to abort theschool improvement process. On the other hand, if the school’s culture were largely compatible with the planned changes and if theclimate were healthy, these might tip the scale in favor of proceeding either with some organizational development or directlywith the implementation of the planned changes.

Interactions in the Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase of most school improvement processes, three major elements take center stage: (a)change, (b) motivation, and (c) professional development. All three affect, and are affected by, the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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characteristics of micro business
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for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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