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McCaskey (1974) discussed how to plan without goals, beginning with the identification of arenas of activity andpreferred behavior patterns within the organizational culture that relate to the contemplated organizational improvement. The leadwould also strive to discern which recent activities or events were pleasing to the school’s members, so that implementation activities could be designed of a similar nature. Once these shared arenas ofactivity and preferences have been identified, the leader can shape the implementation process in directions consonant with“who they are and what they like to do”(McCaskey, 1974, p. 283). This reduces resistance and does not limit individualism nearly as muchas the rational, goal-based approach. It also allows for greater flexibility in adapting to the changing environment.

After a planning approach has been selected, the next step in this initial phases of the school improvementprocess is to assess the school’s capacity and willingness to change (Armenakis, Harris, and Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983;Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Fullan, 1991; Hall&Hord, 2001; Huberman&Miles, 1984; Louis&Miles, 1990; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984; Prochaska et al., 1994; Prochaska, Redding,&Evers, 1997); this is often referred to as organizational readiness for change. Again,readiness for change is, in good measure, a function of the school’s climate and culture (Armenakis, Harris,&Mossholder, 1993; Beach, 1983; Beckhard&Harris, 1987; Cunningham et al., 2002; Evans, 2001; Maurer, 2001; Pond, Armenakis,&Green, 1984). Fullan (1991) found that those schools whose culture iscompatible with change, in general, and with the specific changes involved in the current school improvement project, are most likelyto be successful in their improvement effort.

The final step in the planning phase of the school improvement process is to decide to move ahead withimplementation, undertake some organizational development prior to implementation, or to terminate the school improvement process, atleast for the present time. As with the decisions made to this point in the process, the school’s culture and climate may well be major factors in this decision. If extensive changes in culturewould be necessary before implementation could be attempted or if the school’s climate were not conducive to undertaking a major change effort, it is likely that the decision would be to abort theschool improvement process. On the other hand, if the school’s culture were largely compatible with the planned changes and if theclimate were healthy, these might tip the scale in favor of proceeding either with some organizational development or directlywith the implementation of the planned changes.

Interactions in the Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase of most school improvement processes, three major elements take center stage: (a)change, (b) motivation, and (c) professional development. All three affect, and are affected by, the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
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characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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