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In 1990, Roland Barth presented a bold statement on school improvement:“What needs to be improved about schools is their culture, the quality of inter-personalrelationships, and the nature and quality of learning experiences”(p. 45). In those instances where the major changes needed are to the school culture, itself, an in-depth understanding of theorganizational culture, and sub-cultures, is even more essential. Organizational cultures can be changed, over time, but the moreentrenched and more widely shared the culture, the more difficult it is to effect deep or lasting change. It is necessary to diagnosethe culture carefully and focus on modifying only very specific key values or assumptions, not the entire culture (Harris,2002).

The next step in the planning stage of the school improvement process is for the organization to select aplanning approach (see Beach, 1993) appropriate to the specific school improvement under consideration and to theorganizational conditions, including its climate and culture. Many schools assumethat some form of the traditional rational planning process (Brieve, Johnson,&Young, 1958; Kaufman, 1972), e.g., the strategic planning approach, is the preferred model for guidingschool improvement efforts Bryson, 1995; Cook, 1990). Although in certain circumstances this assumption is correct, there are manyinstances in which alternative planning approaches would be more appropriate. Beach and Lindahl (2004a) discussed how Lindblom’s (1959) incremental planning model, Etzioni’s (1967) mixed-scanning model, and developmental or goal-free planning models (Clark, 1981;McCaskey, 1974) complement rational planning approaches.

In large measure, the culture and climate of the school are factors that must be considered in this decision. AsClark (1981) noted, school cultures tend to be more a loose collection of ideas than a highly coherent structure (see, also,Lonsdale, 1986) and that it is unreasonable to assume high levels of consensus on goals. The technology of instruction is largelyunclear, even among the teachers of a given school. Schools tend to operate more on a trial-and-error basis than through scientificdesign (Clark, p. 49). These qualities are all contradictory to the requisites of the rational planning model. Clark’s assessment was seconded by Walter (1983), whose case study findings concluded thatorganizational behavior is not necessarily guided by formal goals and objectives, but by organizational culture (see, also, Lonsdale,1986).

Walter (1983) tied these findings to McCaskey’s (1974) earlier conclusions that goal-based planning narrows the focus and limits the flexibility of the organizational.Toll (1982) posited that rational, quantitatively based planning often neglects the human aspects of the organization and thechanging environment. Larson (1982) concluded that rational models focus on the future, whereas, in reality, most people in theorganization are focused on the present. In short, for many school improvement efforts goals are sufficiently diverse, the future issufficiently uncertain, and the actions necessary to obtain the goals sufficiently unclear that goal-based, rational planning maywell not be effective, efficient, or appropriate (Clark, 1981).Consequently, Walter (1983) suggested that a more intuitive,climate and culture-based planning approach might be more effective, particularly when the conditions facing the school areunstable or uncertain. Such a directional planning approach would allow the school leader to accommodate alternative preferences,means, and values within the school culture, thereby managing potential conflict.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
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Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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