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In 1990, Roland Barth presented a bold statement on school improvement:“What needs to be improved about schools is their culture, the quality of inter-personalrelationships, and the nature and quality of learning experiences”(p. 45). In those instances where the major changes needed are to the school culture, itself, an in-depth understanding of theorganizational culture, and sub-cultures, is even more essential. Organizational cultures can be changed, over time, but the moreentrenched and more widely shared the culture, the more difficult it is to effect deep or lasting change. It is necessary to diagnosethe culture carefully and focus on modifying only very specific key values or assumptions, not the entire culture (Harris,2002).

The next step in the planning stage of the school improvement process is for the organization to select aplanning approach (see Beach, 1993) appropriate to the specific school improvement under consideration and to theorganizational conditions, including its climate and culture. Many schools assumethat some form of the traditional rational planning process (Brieve, Johnson,&Young, 1958; Kaufman, 1972), e.g., the strategic planning approach, is the preferred model for guidingschool improvement efforts Bryson, 1995; Cook, 1990). Although in certain circumstances this assumption is correct, there are manyinstances in which alternative planning approaches would be more appropriate. Beach and Lindahl (2004a) discussed how Lindblom’s (1959) incremental planning model, Etzioni’s (1967) mixed-scanning model, and developmental or goal-free planning models (Clark, 1981;McCaskey, 1974) complement rational planning approaches.

In large measure, the culture and climate of the school are factors that must be considered in this decision. AsClark (1981) noted, school cultures tend to be more a loose collection of ideas than a highly coherent structure (see, also,Lonsdale, 1986) and that it is unreasonable to assume high levels of consensus on goals. The technology of instruction is largelyunclear, even among the teachers of a given school. Schools tend to operate more on a trial-and-error basis than through scientificdesign (Clark, p. 49). These qualities are all contradictory to the requisites of the rational planning model. Clark’s assessment was seconded by Walter (1983), whose case study findings concluded thatorganizational behavior is not necessarily guided by formal goals and objectives, but by organizational culture (see, also, Lonsdale,1986).

Walter (1983) tied these findings to McCaskey’s (1974) earlier conclusions that goal-based planning narrows the focus and limits the flexibility of the organizational.Toll (1982) posited that rational, quantitatively based planning often neglects the human aspects of the organization and thechanging environment. Larson (1982) concluded that rational models focus on the future, whereas, in reality, most people in theorganization are focused on the present. In short, for many school improvement efforts goals are sufficiently diverse, the future issufficiently uncertain, and the actions necessary to obtain the goals sufficiently unclear that goal-based, rational planning maywell not be effective, efficient, or appropriate (Clark, 1981).Consequently, Walter (1983) suggested that a more intuitive,climate and culture-based planning approach might be more effective, particularly when the conditions facing the school areunstable or uncertain. Such a directional planning approach would allow the school leader to accommodate alternative preferences,means, and values within the school culture, thereby managing potential conflict.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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