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Interactions in the Planning Phase

The initial step in the planning phase of the school improvement process involves identifying an organizationalneed and making a conscious decision whether or not to attempt to address that need. Both the climate and the culture of the schoolcan have considerable influence at this stage. For example, if the current climate of the school is one of high disengagement, highhindrance, and low espirit (Halpin&Croft, 1963), it is unlikely that the school will voluntarily opt to engage in asignificant school improvement process; if forced to, it is unlikely that the effort will succeed. Similarly, if the school’s culture is one of cultural malaise (Deal&Kennedy, 1982), it is unlikely that the school improvement process will progressbeyond this initial step. Conversely, healthier climates and more positive cultures with a history of successful large-scaleorganizational change will greatly enhance the probability that the school will opt to move ahead with the school improvementplan.

The next step in the planning phase is to consider the nature of the changes inherent in the improvementprocess. It is essential that the school improvement process, and even the specific improvements and reforms being contemplated,match those climates and cultures (Hopkins, Harris, Singleton,&Watts, 2000; Sathe, 1985), for culture affects organizational behavior and performance, thereby shaping the impact and directionof changes (Kilman, Saxton,&Serpa, 1985a). If the changes contemplated are not in good alignment with the current culture andclimate of the school, e.g., the existing customs, power structures, and paths of least resistance of the organization(Connor&Lake, 1988), planned cultural intervention is necessary (Burke, 2002). In such cases, it is essential tounderstand the existing organizational culture, to know its source and bounds (Lorsch, 1985). This helps to ensure that changes aremade only to the aspects of that culture that are at odds with the change, not the benign aspects.

When change is contemplated, certain key questions need to be asked, including: Which aspects of theorganizational culture are most compatible with the proposed change? Which aspects of that culture are least compatible with thechange? How deeply entrenched are these aspects of the culture? How might the proposed change affect people’s perceptions of the organizational climate? How great a change in climate is likely beperceived as a consequence of implementing this change? Which aspects of the new climate might be perceived as becoming morepositive, or more negative? How strongly might these changes in perceptions affect individuals? Which individuals?

Even these understandings may not be useful in helping to change the culture, but they can help to shape or selectstrategies that have a greater probability of implementation and institutionalization (Schein, 1985a, 1985b). As Sathe (1985) noted,the selection of strategies should be based on questions such as: Can the desired results be obtained without changing the culture,or by utilizing the latent potential of the existing culture? If not, can they be obtained by moving toward more intrinsicallyappealing beliefs rather than characterizing the change as focusing on beliefs more alien to the existing culture? The weaker theorganizational culture or the fewer and less central the assumptions of an organizational culture that need to be modified,the more likely it is that the planned improvement can be effectively achieved (Sathe, 1985), for changes in culture cancreate a sense of loss and even the potential loss of the meaning of one’s work in the organization (Allen, 1985; Deal, 1985).

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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