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Interactions in the Planning Phase

The initial step in the planning phase of the school improvement process involves identifying an organizationalneed and making a conscious decision whether or not to attempt to address that need. Both the climate and the culture of the schoolcan have considerable influence at this stage. For example, if the current climate of the school is one of high disengagement, highhindrance, and low espirit (Halpin&Croft, 1963), it is unlikely that the school will voluntarily opt to engage in asignificant school improvement process; if forced to, it is unlikely that the effort will succeed. Similarly, if the school’s culture is one of cultural malaise (Deal&Kennedy, 1982), it is unlikely that the school improvement process will progressbeyond this initial step. Conversely, healthier climates and more positive cultures with a history of successful large-scaleorganizational change will greatly enhance the probability that the school will opt to move ahead with the school improvementplan.

The next step in the planning phase is to consider the nature of the changes inherent in the improvementprocess. It is essential that the school improvement process, and even the specific improvements and reforms being contemplated,match those climates and cultures (Hopkins, Harris, Singleton,&Watts, 2000; Sathe, 1985), for culture affects organizational behavior and performance, thereby shaping the impact and directionof changes (Kilman, Saxton,&Serpa, 1985a). If the changes contemplated are not in good alignment with the current culture andclimate of the school, e.g., the existing customs, power structures, and paths of least resistance of the organization(Connor&Lake, 1988), planned cultural intervention is necessary (Burke, 2002). In such cases, it is essential tounderstand the existing organizational culture, to know its source and bounds (Lorsch, 1985). This helps to ensure that changes aremade only to the aspects of that culture that are at odds with the change, not the benign aspects.

When change is contemplated, certain key questions need to be asked, including: Which aspects of theorganizational culture are most compatible with the proposed change? Which aspects of that culture are least compatible with thechange? How deeply entrenched are these aspects of the culture? How might the proposed change affect people’s perceptions of the organizational climate? How great a change in climate is likely beperceived as a consequence of implementing this change? Which aspects of the new climate might be perceived as becoming morepositive, or more negative? How strongly might these changes in perceptions affect individuals? Which individuals?

Even these understandings may not be useful in helping to change the culture, but they can help to shape or selectstrategies that have a greater probability of implementation and institutionalization (Schein, 1985a, 1985b). As Sathe (1985) noted,the selection of strategies should be based on questions such as: Can the desired results be obtained without changing the culture,or by utilizing the latent potential of the existing culture? If not, can they be obtained by moving toward more intrinsicallyappealing beliefs rather than characterizing the change as focusing on beliefs more alien to the existing culture? The weaker theorganizational culture or the fewer and less central the assumptions of an organizational culture that need to be modified,the more likely it is that the planned improvement can be effectively achieved (Sathe, 1985), for changes in culture cancreate a sense of loss and even the potential loss of the meaning of one’s work in the organization (Allen, 1985; Deal, 1985).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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