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Such quantitative survey instruments for assessing organizational culture are readily available, e.g.,Kilmann and Saxton’s Culture Gap Survey (1991). However, these instruments tend to be superficial and are incapable of probing thedepth and uniqueness of an organization’s culture. As Rousseau (1990) commented, the uniqueness of each organization’s culture prevents outsiders from forming valid a priori questions. Schein(1984) further noted that using surveys to assess culture violates ethical research procedures in that it puts words into the mouths of respondents rather than captures their own words. Also, suchinstruments summarize and aggregate responses, possibly misrepresenting the respondents’true views.

Because organizational culture is a multi-layered phenomenon, different data gathering approaches maybe necessary to assess the various layers. Rousseau (1990) identified five basic layers of organizational culture, proceedingfrom the most superficial and observable to the most profound, yet least revealed or discussed. These layers were: (a) artifacts, (b)patterns of behavior, (c) behavioral norms, (d) values, and (e) fundamental assumptions. Connor and Lake (1988) discussed the sameconcepts but classified culture into three layers, rather than five.

At its shallowest levels, school culture is open to assessment by observation of behaviors and interactions,listening to stories, participating in rituals, and examining artifacts and written communications. To understand the sharedvalues, common understandings, and patterns of expectations, it is necessary to probe more deeply and into subconscious areas byexamining the authentic responses of organization members. Rousseau (1990) and Schein (1999) advocated the use of structured interviewsto gather these data. Schein noted that small group interviews are both more valid and efficient than individual interviews. However,to get at the deepest levels of shared culture, assumptions and beliefs, intensive individual interviews are probably the mostappropriate approach.

As with all qualitative research, it is essential that organizational leaders set aside their ownconceptions and values as they attempt to discern the shared values and beliefs of others in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein,1999). However, the leader’s observations of behaviors and artifacts can legitimately provide the initial entry point thatleads to a deeper investigation of the underlying shared values, norms, beliefs, and assumptions.

With these definitions of organizational climate and culture and some insight into how to assess theseconstructs, the leader’s next challenge is to forecast how the school’s culture and climate will interact with the school improvement process. The section that follows explores variouspossible patterns of interaction.

Interaction of School Climate and Culture with the School Improvement Process

A school’s culture and climate can interact with the school improvement process in many ways and in all phasesof that improvement process. Figure 1 illustrates a typical school improvement process, which progresses from a planning phase toimplementation, and eventually to institutionalization of the desired changes. As Beach and Lindahl (2004b) discussed, inreality, school improvement processes are not as linear as diagrams such as Figure 1 suggest. However, the basic phases of the modeloffer a useful structure for examining potential interactions between the process and the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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