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Such quantitative survey instruments for assessing organizational culture are readily available, e.g.,Kilmann and Saxton’s Culture Gap Survey (1991). However, these instruments tend to be superficial and are incapable of probing thedepth and uniqueness of an organization’s culture. As Rousseau (1990) commented, the uniqueness of each organization’s culture prevents outsiders from forming valid a priori questions. Schein(1984) further noted that using surveys to assess culture violates ethical research procedures in that it puts words into the mouths of respondents rather than captures their own words. Also, suchinstruments summarize and aggregate responses, possibly misrepresenting the respondents’true views.

Because organizational culture is a multi-layered phenomenon, different data gathering approaches maybe necessary to assess the various layers. Rousseau (1990) identified five basic layers of organizational culture, proceedingfrom the most superficial and observable to the most profound, yet least revealed or discussed. These layers were: (a) artifacts, (b)patterns of behavior, (c) behavioral norms, (d) values, and (e) fundamental assumptions. Connor and Lake (1988) discussed the sameconcepts but classified culture into three layers, rather than five.

At its shallowest levels, school culture is open to assessment by observation of behaviors and interactions,listening to stories, participating in rituals, and examining artifacts and written communications. To understand the sharedvalues, common understandings, and patterns of expectations, it is necessary to probe more deeply and into subconscious areas byexamining the authentic responses of organization members. Rousseau (1990) and Schein (1999) advocated the use of structured interviewsto gather these data. Schein noted that small group interviews are both more valid and efficient than individual interviews. However,to get at the deepest levels of shared culture, assumptions and beliefs, intensive individual interviews are probably the mostappropriate approach.

As with all qualitative research, it is essential that organizational leaders set aside their ownconceptions and values as they attempt to discern the shared values and beliefs of others in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein,1999). However, the leader’s observations of behaviors and artifacts can legitimately provide the initial entry point thatleads to a deeper investigation of the underlying shared values, norms, beliefs, and assumptions.

With these definitions of organizational climate and culture and some insight into how to assess theseconstructs, the leader’s next challenge is to forecast how the school’s culture and climate will interact with the school improvement process. The section that follows explores variouspossible patterns of interaction.

Interaction of School Climate and Culture with the School Improvement Process

A school’s culture and climate can interact with the school improvement process in many ways and in all phasesof that improvement process. Figure 1 illustrates a typical school improvement process, which progresses from a planning phase toimplementation, and eventually to institutionalization of the desired changes. As Beach and Lindahl (2004b) discussed, inreality, school improvement processes are not as linear as diagrams such as Figure 1 suggest. However, the basic phases of the modeloffer a useful structure for examining potential interactions between the process and the school’s climate and culture.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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