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Assessment of school climate. A great variety of instruments have been developed to measure organizationalclimate. The first of these to gain wide acceptance was Halpin and Croft’s (1963) Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ, Form IV). This 64-item climate assessment tool is comprisedof 8 sub-scales relating teachers’behavior to that of the principal: (a) disengagement, (b) hindrance, (c) spirit, (d)intimacy, (e) aloofness, (f) production emphasis, (g) thrust, and (h) consideration. In examining the climates of 71 schools, Halpinand Croft found that their scores clustered into six major climatic types: (a) open, (b) autonomous, (c) controlled, (d) familiar, (e)paternal, and (f) closed.

Perhaps the most widely used school climate surveys are those published by the National Study of SchoolEvaluation (NSSE) (2005). One reason for the widespread popularity of these surveys is the fact that NSSE will also tabulate, analyze,and report on their results, saving the building level administrator or district staff from these time consuming, andsomewhat confusing, processes. Also, these surveys are available in both paper and on-line formats, allowing the school to choose themost appropriate technology for the participants being surveyed. Comparable forms exist for elementary school students, middleschool students, high school students, teachers, English-speaking parents, Spanish-speaking parents, and community members. Thesurveys are predominantly Likert scale-based, but also allow for minor amounts of open-ended input.

Another major set of climate assessment instruments comes from the National Association of Secondary SchoolPrincipals (NASSP). Their Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments (CASE) School Climate Surveys (1987) collect data onten sub-scales: (a) teacher-student relationships, (b) security and maintenance, (c) administration, (d) student academic orientation,(e) student behavioral values, (f) guidance, (g) student-peer relationships, (h) parent and community-school relationships, (i)instructional management, and (j) student activities. The information gathered through this instrument is supplemented byseparate satisfaction surveys for parents, teachers, and students. Much of the information on these satisfaction surveys is comparableacross groups (e.g., questions on student activities or school buildings, supplies, and upkeep), but some of it is unique to thespecific group being surveyed (e.g., parents and teachers report on their satisfaction with the administration of the school, whereasstudents report on their satisfaction with the teachers). As with the NSSE instrumentation, NASSP offers scoring and reportingservices for these surveys, including allowing the school to ask“what if”questions related to the six sub-scales, e.g.,“What would it take for any school to raise student satisfaction by 10%?”(NASSP, 2005).

Assessment of school culture. Unlike the assessment of school climate, which is generally accepted to be astraightforward quantitative process, assessment of school culture is far more complex. Two basic schools of thought exist regardingappropriate means of assessing school cultures. On one hand, Schein (1999) categorically refuted that culture can be assessed throughwritten questionnaires or surveys, asserting that the assessor would neither know what to ask nor be able to judge the reliabilityor validity of the responses. Rousseau (1990), on the other hand, allowed that such quantitative tools as Q-sorts and questionnairescan legitimately be utilized, in conjunction with structured interviews, to assess organizational culture.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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