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Assessment of school climate. A great variety of instruments have been developed to measure organizationalclimate. The first of these to gain wide acceptance was Halpin and Croft’s (1963) Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ, Form IV). This 64-item climate assessment tool is comprisedof 8 sub-scales relating teachers’behavior to that of the principal: (a) disengagement, (b) hindrance, (c) spirit, (d)intimacy, (e) aloofness, (f) production emphasis, (g) thrust, and (h) consideration. In examining the climates of 71 schools, Halpinand Croft found that their scores clustered into six major climatic types: (a) open, (b) autonomous, (c) controlled, (d) familiar, (e)paternal, and (f) closed.

Perhaps the most widely used school climate surveys are those published by the National Study of SchoolEvaluation (NSSE) (2005). One reason for the widespread popularity of these surveys is the fact that NSSE will also tabulate, analyze,and report on their results, saving the building level administrator or district staff from these time consuming, andsomewhat confusing, processes. Also, these surveys are available in both paper and on-line formats, allowing the school to choose themost appropriate technology for the participants being surveyed. Comparable forms exist for elementary school students, middleschool students, high school students, teachers, English-speaking parents, Spanish-speaking parents, and community members. Thesurveys are predominantly Likert scale-based, but also allow for minor amounts of open-ended input.

Another major set of climate assessment instruments comes from the National Association of Secondary SchoolPrincipals (NASSP). Their Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments (CASE) School Climate Surveys (1987) collect data onten sub-scales: (a) teacher-student relationships, (b) security and maintenance, (c) administration, (d) student academic orientation,(e) student behavioral values, (f) guidance, (g) student-peer relationships, (h) parent and community-school relationships, (i)instructional management, and (j) student activities. The information gathered through this instrument is supplemented byseparate satisfaction surveys for parents, teachers, and students. Much of the information on these satisfaction surveys is comparableacross groups (e.g., questions on student activities or school buildings, supplies, and upkeep), but some of it is unique to thespecific group being surveyed (e.g., parents and teachers report on their satisfaction with the administration of the school, whereasstudents report on their satisfaction with the teachers). As with the NSSE instrumentation, NASSP offers scoring and reportingservices for these surveys, including allowing the school to ask“what if”questions related to the six sub-scales, e.g.,“What would it take for any school to raise student satisfaction by 10%?”(NASSP, 2005).

Assessment of school culture. Unlike the assessment of school climate, which is generally accepted to be astraightforward quantitative process, assessment of school culture is far more complex. Two basic schools of thought exist regardingappropriate means of assessing school cultures. On one hand, Schein (1999) categorically refuted that culture can be assessed throughwritten questionnaires or surveys, asserting that the assessor would neither know what to ask nor be able to judge the reliabilityor validity of the responses. Rousseau (1990), on the other hand, allowed that such quantitative tools as Q-sorts and questionnairescan legitimately be utilized, in conjunction with structured interviews, to assess organizational culture.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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