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As far back as 1932, Waller noted that“schools have a culture that is definitely their own”(p. 103). Waller went on to describe the rituals of personal relationships,the folkways, mores, irrational sanctions, moral codes, games, ceremonies, traditions, and laws that were so very similar in manyschools and which define what happens in schools. This perspective of a shared culture among schools has been commented on by manyobservers of the sociology of schools, including Deal (1993), Sarason (1996), and Swidler (1979). From this author’s conversations with educators and students around the globe andobservations in schools internationally, there is a basic culture of schooling that transcends national, ethnic, and socio-culturalborders. International exchange students often express how similar their host school is to their school in their native country. Inthis author’s experience, in developing nations there is often a greater cultural similarity between the private schools serving themore wealthy students and sub-urban schools in the U. S. than there is between those private schools and the public schools servingtheir nation’s poorer children. However, as Deal (1993) and Maehr and Buck (1993) commented, each school also possessesindividualized, unique cultural aspects. Schools have distinct personalities, highly unique ceremonies, and varying disciplinenorms. Some schools revere their athletic teams, whereas in other schools art, music, or drama programs are given great attention; inyet other schools, academic achievement is at the apex of community respect. Organizational culture can be a highly powerful force inthe school improvement process; given this definition of culture, it stands to reason that, as Owens (2004) noted, it may often bethe most powerful determinant of the course of change in an organization (p. 191).

Equipped with an understanding of the basic constructs of organizational climate and culture, the nextchallenge facing the leader of a school improvement process becomes the assessment of his or her school’s climate and culture. As Schein (1999, p. 86) noted pointedly, assessment of organizationalclimate and culture must be done in the specific context of some organizational problem or set of circumstances. Consequently, theassessment of the school’s climate and culture must be done specifically in the context of the proposed change(s) andimprovement process. The section that follows provides some methodological insight into that assessment process.

How Can One Assess an Organization’s Climate and Culture?

It is generally agreed that assessment of an organization’s climate is a relatively straight-forward process, especially when compared to the methodologies needed to assess theorganization’s culture. As climate is defined as individuals’perceptions, quantitative survey instruments have become the most widely accepted means of gathering and analyzing organizationalclimate data. The same is not true for the assessment of school culture; in fact, various authorities in the field (e.g., Schein,1999) assert that it absolutely cannot be measured quantitatively through surveys or questionnaires.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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