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Organizational culture embraces such organizational needs as common language, shared concepts, definedorganizational boundaries, methods for selecting members for the organization, methods of allocating authority, power, status, andresources, norms for handling intimacy and interpersonal relationships, criteria for rewards and punishments, and ways ofcoping with unpredictable and stressful events (Schein, 1985a). This shared culture helps to create solidarity and meaning andinspire commitment and productivity (Deal, 1985).

Culture may operate both consciously and sub-consciously in the organization (Rousseau, 1990; Schein, 1984,1985a, 1985b; Wilkins&Patterson, 1985). At the surface level, culture can be observed through examination of behaviors andartifacts, including such things as the physical setting, rituals, languages, and stories. At a slightly deeper, less conscious level,organizational culture is defined by the unwritten rules and norms of behavior, often conveyed by stories, rituals, language, andsymbols. At the deepest levels, often totally sub-conscious, lie such things as the fundamental assumptions and core values ofindividuals, groups, and the organization (Connor&Lake, 1988). It is at this deepest level that the organizational culturecan be most tenacious and most powerful (Wilkins&Patterson, 1985).

Culture is experienced differently by members of the organization (Rousseau, 1990). Sub-cultures may arise withinan organization as small groups share values, perceptions, norms, or even ceremonies that differ from those of the wider organization(Cooper, 1988; Louis, 1985; Thompson&Luthans, 1990). For example, in many high schools, coaches of male athletic teams forma sub-culture within the faculty; they typically sit together at faculty meetings, generally at the back of the room. They oftenmiss faculty meetings and are unable to participate in general faculty activities due to their coaching obligations immediatelyafter school. They can often be observed commenting and joking among themselves at times when other faculty members are moreattentively engaged with the content of the faculty meeting. Similarly, new faculty members may form a sub-culture somewhatdistinct from those who have been in the school for a prolonged period of time.

Culture is also contextually influenced. It is the interaction of an organization’s people variables with physical and structural (ecological) variables (Hall&Hord, 2001). For example, many high schools are built in a design in which hallwaysradiate from a central hub; in these schools, it is very common for the teachers in each hallway to build a culture slightly differentfrom the culture of teachers in hallways with whom they have less personal contact. School culture can be influenced by such physical surrounding variables as noise, heat, and light (Thompson&Luthans, 1990). The open classroom designs popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s promoted more sharing and contact amongteachers than fully-walled individual classrooms. Learning cultures among students in the Southern and Southwestern United States havechanged significantly with the addition of air conditioning to classrooms.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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