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Definitions of Organizational Culture

At culture’s most global level, Merriam-Webster’s On-Line Dictionary (2005) provides the following definition:

the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon man's capacity for learningand transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations; b : the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial,religious, or social group; c : the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes a company orcorporation.

As the focus narrows to organizational culture,there are seemingly as many definitions as there areauthors attempting to define this construct. Probably the greatest overarching issue concerning the definition of an organizationalculture centers around whether culture is a root metaphor or merely one aspect of the organization; in simpler terms, is culture whatthe organization is or is it something the organization has (Rousseau, 1990; Sathe, 1985; Thompson&Luthans, 1990)? The preponderance of opinion seems to fall on the side of culture beingsomething that most organizations have.

Kilman, Saxton, and Serpa (1985b)provided an apt analogy that helps to illuminate the nature of organizationalculture:“Culture is to the organization what personality is to the individual–a hidden, yet unifying theme that provides meaning, direction, and mobilization”(p. ix). As such, it is emotional and intangible (Connor&Lake, 1988), individually and socially constructed (Hall&Hord, 2001; Rousseau, 1990), and evolves over a period of years (Wilkins&Patterson, 1985), especially as organizations find acceptable and unacceptable solutions tointernal and external problems or threats and attempt to integrate more effectively internally (Schein, 1985a, 1992). This culture canalso be developed and learned by organizational members through the connection of behaviors and consequences and through multiplereinforcement mechanisms and agents (Thompson&Luthans, 1990). It can be learned through the reduction of anxiety and pain orthrough positive rewards and reinforcements (Schein, 1985a).

A fairly common, simplistic definition of organizational culture is“The way we do things around here.”Although this statement appears in many books and articles, the earliest of such entries found by this author was by Deal (1993, p.6). Deeper discussions expand this definition to cover such issues as the basic assumptions and beliefs shared by members of theorganization regarding the nature of reality, truth, time, space, human nature, human activity, and human relationships (Schein,1985a; 1985b). It also consists of the philosophies, ideologies, concepts, ceremonies, rituals, values, and norms shared by membersof the organization that help shape their behaviors (Connor&Lake, 1988; Kilman, Saxton,&Serpa, 1985b; Owens, 2004; Rousseau, 1990). Among the norms it includes are task supportnorms, task innovation norms, social relationship norms, and personal freedom norms. Among the rituals are such issues aspassage, degradation, enhancement, renewal, conflict resolution, and integration (Connor&Lake, 1988).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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