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Definitions of Organizational Culture

At culture’s most global level, Merriam-Webster’s On-Line Dictionary (2005) provides the following definition:

the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon man's capacity for learningand transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations; b : the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial,religious, or social group; c : the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes a company orcorporation.

As the focus narrows to organizational culture,there are seemingly as many definitions as there areauthors attempting to define this construct. Probably the greatest overarching issue concerning the definition of an organizationalculture centers around whether culture is a root metaphor or merely one aspect of the organization; in simpler terms, is culture whatthe organization is or is it something the organization has (Rousseau, 1990; Sathe, 1985; Thompson&Luthans, 1990)? The preponderance of opinion seems to fall on the side of culture beingsomething that most organizations have.

Kilman, Saxton, and Serpa (1985b)provided an apt analogy that helps to illuminate the nature of organizationalculture:“Culture is to the organization what personality is to the individual–a hidden, yet unifying theme that provides meaning, direction, and mobilization”(p. ix). As such, it is emotional and intangible (Connor&Lake, 1988), individually and socially constructed (Hall&Hord, 2001; Rousseau, 1990), and evolves over a period of years (Wilkins&Patterson, 1985), especially as organizations find acceptable and unacceptable solutions tointernal and external problems or threats and attempt to integrate more effectively internally (Schein, 1985a, 1992). This culture canalso be developed and learned by organizational members through the connection of behaviors and consequences and through multiplereinforcement mechanisms and agents (Thompson&Luthans, 1990). It can be learned through the reduction of anxiety and pain orthrough positive rewards and reinforcements (Schein, 1985a).

A fairly common, simplistic definition of organizational culture is“The way we do things around here.”Although this statement appears in many books and articles, the earliest of such entries found by this author was by Deal (1993, p.6). Deeper discussions expand this definition to cover such issues as the basic assumptions and beliefs shared by members of theorganization regarding the nature of reality, truth, time, space, human nature, human activity, and human relationships (Schein,1985a; 1985b). It also consists of the philosophies, ideologies, concepts, ceremonies, rituals, values, and norms shared by membersof the organization that help shape their behaviors (Connor&Lake, 1988; Kilman, Saxton,&Serpa, 1985b; Owens, 2004; Rousseau, 1990). Among the norms it includes are task supportnorms, task innovation norms, social relationship norms, and personal freedom norms. Among the rituals are such issues aspassage, degradation, enhancement, renewal, conflict resolution, and integration (Connor&Lake, 1988).

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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