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In order to assess the alignment of the existing school culture with the contemplated improvements or toattempt planned cultural interventions, it is first necessary to understand well the constructs of organizational climate andculture. The sections that follow provide a brief introduction to these complex and much-debated constructs.

Definition of Organizational Climate

Although the Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary (2005) provides no definition of climate that couldreasonably be linked to organizations, Owens (2004) related it to such terms as atmosphere, personality, tone, or ethos (p. 178). Thefoundational work in school climate is generally recognized as that of Halpin and Croft (1963), who roughly related their definition ofclimate to morale (p. 6), but admitted that time constraints restricted their consideration of that construct to the socialinteraction between the principal and the teachers (p. 7). Their research examined teacher disengagement from the teaching-learningprocess, the extent to which the principal burdens teachers with routine duties and demands, teachers’perceptions that their personal needs are being satisfied and they are accomplishingpositive things in their work, teachers’enjoyment of friendly social relations with each other, principals’aloofness and reliance on rules and policies rather than informal contacts withteachers, closeness of supervision of teachers by the principal, teacher perceptions that the principal is working to move theorganization in positive directions, and teacher perceptions that the principal treats them humanely. All of these factors combine tohelp define the climate of a school.

Many authors, including Schein (1992), have drawn sharp lines of demarcation between the constructs oforganizational climate and culture. Rousseau (1990) differentiated between these two constructs on the basis of climate being thedescriptive beliefs and perceptions individuals hold of the organization, whereas culture is the shared values, beliefs, and expectations that develop from social interactions within theorganization. The boundaries between organizational climate and culture can appear to be artificial, arbitrary, and even largelyunnecessary.

Tagiuri’s systemic model (as cited in Owens, 2004) offers an interesting means for integrating these twoconstructs; he presented culture as one of four components of organizational climate, along with ecology, milieu, andorganization or structure. Within his construct of organizational culture, he included assumptions, values, norms, beliefs, ways ofthinking, behavior patterns, and artifacts; this definition seems to parallel closely many of the prominent authorities in the field.However, his construct of organizational climate tends to be more encompassing than that of many of his peers. Within thesub-component of ecology, he included buildings and facilities, technology, and pedagogical interventions. Within milieu, Tagiurisubsumed the race, ethnicity, socio-economic levels, and gender of organizational members and participants, their motivation andskills, and the organization’s leadership. His organization or structure construct includes communication and decision-makingpatterns within the organization, the organizational hierarchy and formal structures, and the level of bureaucratization. Althoughthis definition is so comprehensive as to resemble French and Bell’s (1998) organizational systems model and can somewhat blur the core definition of organizational climate, it serves as a goodreminder of the interrelatedness of all these factors with organizational climate and culture. It also illustrates the broadrange of organizational issues that must be taken into consideration when planning for large-scale organizationalimprovement.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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