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In order to assess the alignment of the existing school culture with the contemplated improvements or toattempt planned cultural interventions, it is first necessary to understand well the constructs of organizational climate andculture. The sections that follow provide a brief introduction to these complex and much-debated constructs.

Definition of Organizational Climate

Although the Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary (2005) provides no definition of climate that couldreasonably be linked to organizations, Owens (2004) related it to such terms as atmosphere, personality, tone, or ethos (p. 178). Thefoundational work in school climate is generally recognized as that of Halpin and Croft (1963), who roughly related their definition ofclimate to morale (p. 6), but admitted that time constraints restricted their consideration of that construct to the socialinteraction between the principal and the teachers (p. 7). Their research examined teacher disengagement from the teaching-learningprocess, the extent to which the principal burdens teachers with routine duties and demands, teachers’perceptions that their personal needs are being satisfied and they are accomplishingpositive things in their work, teachers’enjoyment of friendly social relations with each other, principals’aloofness and reliance on rules and policies rather than informal contacts withteachers, closeness of supervision of teachers by the principal, teacher perceptions that the principal is working to move theorganization in positive directions, and teacher perceptions that the principal treats them humanely. All of these factors combine tohelp define the climate of a school.

Many authors, including Schein (1992), have drawn sharp lines of demarcation between the constructs oforganizational climate and culture. Rousseau (1990) differentiated between these two constructs on the basis of climate being thedescriptive beliefs and perceptions individuals hold of the organization, whereas culture is the shared values, beliefs, and expectations that develop from social interactions within theorganization. The boundaries between organizational climate and culture can appear to be artificial, arbitrary, and even largelyunnecessary.

Tagiuri’s systemic model (as cited in Owens, 2004) offers an interesting means for integrating these twoconstructs; he presented culture as one of four components of organizational climate, along with ecology, milieu, andorganization or structure. Within his construct of organizational culture, he included assumptions, values, norms, beliefs, ways ofthinking, behavior patterns, and artifacts; this definition seems to parallel closely many of the prominent authorities in the field.However, his construct of organizational climate tends to be more encompassing than that of many of his peers. Within thesub-component of ecology, he included buildings and facilities, technology, and pedagogical interventions. Within milieu, Tagiurisubsumed the race, ethnicity, socio-economic levels, and gender of organizational members and participants, their motivation andskills, and the organization’s leadership. His organization or structure construct includes communication and decision-makingpatterns within the organization, the organizational hierarchy and formal structures, and the level of bureaucratization. Althoughthis definition is so comprehensive as to resemble French and Bell’s (1998) organizational systems model and can somewhat blur the core definition of organizational climate, it serves as a goodreminder of the interrelatedness of all these factors with organizational climate and culture. It also illustrates the broadrange of organizational issues that must be taken into consideration when planning for large-scale organizationalimprovement.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Organizational change in the field of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Feb 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10402/1.2
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