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Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1747):

Newton invented a method that approached science systematically. He composed a set of four rules forscientific reasoning. Stated in the Principia, Newton’s four way framework was: “(1) Admit no more causes of natural things such asare both true and sufficient to explain their appearances, (2) The same natural effects must be assigned to the same causes, (3)Qualities of bodies are to be esteemed as universal, and (4) Propositions deduced from observation of phenomena should be viewedas accurate until other phenomena contradict them.”

9Set of four rules, (External Link) :
His analytical method was a critical improvement upon the more abstractapproach of Aristotle, mostly because his laws lent themselves well to experimentation with mathematical physics, whose conclusions“could then be confirmed by direct observation.” Newton also refined Galileo’s experimental method by creating the contemporary“compositional method of experimentation” that consisted in making experiments and observations, followed by inducted conclusions thatcould only be overturned by the realization of other, more substantiated truths.
10Ibid website.
Essentially, through his physical and mathematical approach to experimental design,Newton established a clear distinction between “natural philosophy” and “physical science.”

All of these natural philosophers built upon the work of their contemporaries, and this collaboration becameeven simpler with the establishment of professional societies for scientists that published journals and provided forums forscientific discussion. The next section discusses the impact of these societies, especially the British Royal Society.

The role of the royal society

Along with the development of science as a discipline independent from philosophy, organizations of scholarsbegan to emerge as centers of thought and intellectual exchange. Arguably the most influential of these was the Royal Society ofLondon for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge (from official website (External Link) ), which was established in 1660 with Robert Hooke as the first Curator ofExperiments. Commonly known as the Royal Society, the establishment of this organization was closely connected with the development ofthe history of science from the seventeenth century onwards.

11Brief History of the Royal Society of London : http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=2176
The origins of the Royal Society grew out of a group of natural philosophers (later known as "scientists") who began meeting in the mid-1640s in order to debate the new ideas of Francis Bacon. The Society met weekly to witness experiments and discuss what we would now call scientific topics. A common theme was how they could learn about the world through experimentalinvestigation.

The academy became an indispensable part of the development of modern science because in addition to fosteringdiscussing among scientists, the Royal Academy became the de facto academy for scientific study in Europe. Accomplished scientists served as Royal Academy Fellows and exchanged ideas both casually and formally through the publicationof articles and findings. These scholars, especially Francis Bacon, served as an important resource for the justification of the newfact-gathering, experiment-based experimental method as well as for the validation of "modern (17th century) science." Moreover, the work they published through the society helped gain credibilityfor the society and for science as a discipline. For example, scholars such as Robert Boyle published significant scientificfindings in its unofficial journal Philosophical Transactions (Dear, p 140). Other famous scientists that joined the society included Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton and William Petty, all of whombenefited from academic collaboration within the society and from increased publicity generated by their published works.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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