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Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1747):

Newton invented a method that approached science systematically. He composed a set of four rules forscientific reasoning. Stated in the Principia, Newton’s four way framework was: “(1) Admit no more causes of natural things such asare both true and sufficient to explain their appearances, (2) The same natural effects must be assigned to the same causes, (3)Qualities of bodies are to be esteemed as universal, and (4) Propositions deduced from observation of phenomena should be viewedas accurate until other phenomena contradict them.”

9Set of four rules, (External Link) :
His analytical method was a critical improvement upon the more abstractapproach of Aristotle, mostly because his laws lent themselves well to experimentation with mathematical physics, whose conclusions“could then be confirmed by direct observation.” Newton also refined Galileo’s experimental method by creating the contemporary“compositional method of experimentation” that consisted in making experiments and observations, followed by inducted conclusions thatcould only be overturned by the realization of other, more substantiated truths.
10Ibid website.
Essentially, through his physical and mathematical approach to experimental design,Newton established a clear distinction between “natural philosophy” and “physical science.”

All of these natural philosophers built upon the work of their contemporaries, and this collaboration becameeven simpler with the establishment of professional societies for scientists that published journals and provided forums forscientific discussion. The next section discusses the impact of these societies, especially the British Royal Society.

The role of the royal society

Along with the development of science as a discipline independent from philosophy, organizations of scholarsbegan to emerge as centers of thought and intellectual exchange. Arguably the most influential of these was the Royal Society ofLondon for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge (from official website (External Link) ), which was established in 1660 with Robert Hooke as the first Curator ofExperiments. Commonly known as the Royal Society, the establishment of this organization was closely connected with the development ofthe history of science from the seventeenth century onwards.

11Brief History of the Royal Society of London : http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=2176
The origins of the Royal Society grew out of a group of natural philosophers (later known as "scientists") who began meeting in the mid-1640s in order to debate the new ideas of Francis Bacon. The Society met weekly to witness experiments and discuss what we would now call scientific topics. A common theme was how they could learn about the world through experimentalinvestigation.

The academy became an indispensable part of the development of modern science because in addition to fosteringdiscussing among scientists, the Royal Academy became the de facto academy for scientific study in Europe. Accomplished scientists served as Royal Academy Fellows and exchanged ideas both casually and formally through the publicationof articles and findings. These scholars, especially Francis Bacon, served as an important resource for the justification of the newfact-gathering, experiment-based experimental method as well as for the validation of "modern (17th century) science." Moreover, the work they published through the society helped gain credibilityfor the society and for science as a discipline. For example, scholars such as Robert Boyle published significant scientificfindings in its unofficial journal Philosophical Transactions (Dear, p 140). Other famous scientists that joined the society included Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton and William Petty, all of whombenefited from academic collaboration within the society and from increased publicity generated by their published works.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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