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René Descartes (1596-1650):Descartes disagreed with Galileo’s and Bacon’s experimental methods because he believedthat one could only:

“(1) Accept nothing as true that is not self-evident. (2) Divide problems into their simplest parts. (3)Solve problems by proceeding from simple to complex. (4) Recheck the reasoning.”

That these “4 laws of reasoning” followed from Descartes’ ideas onmathematics (he invented derivative and integral calculus in order to better explain natural law) gives the impression that Descartes,like many 17th century philosophers, were using advances in disciplines outside philosophy and science to enrich scientifictheory. Additionally, the laws set forth by Descartes promote the idea that he trusted only the fruits of human logic, not theresults of physical experimentation, because he believed that humans can only definitely know that “they think therefore theyare.” Thus, according to Descartes’s logic, we must doubt what we perceive physically (physical experimentation is imperfect) becauseour bodies are external to the mind (our only source of truth, as given by God).
5Hall, p 178
Even though Descartes denounced Baconian reasoning and medieval empiricism as shallow andimperfect, Descartes did believe that conclusions could come about through acceptance of a centrifugal system, in which one could workoutwards from the certainty of existence of mind and God to find universal truths or laws that could be detected by reason.
6Hall, p 179
It was to this aim that Descartes penned the above “4 laws of reasoning” – to eliminateunnecessary pollution of almost mathematically exact human reason.

Robert Boyle (1627-1691):

Boyle is an interesting case among the 17th century natural philosophers, in that he continued to use medievalteleology as well as 17th century Galilean mechanism and Baconian induction to explain events. Even though he made progress in thefield of chemistry through Baconian experimentation (fact-finding followed by controlled experimentation), he remained drawn toteleological explanations for scientific phenomena. For example, Boyle believed that because “God established rules of motion andthe corporeal order – laws of nature,” phenomena must exist to serve a certain purpose within that established order. Boyle usedthis idea as an explanation for how the “geometrical arrangement of the atoms defined the chemical characteristics of the substance.”

Overall, Boyle’s attachment to teleology was not so strange in the 17thcentury because of Descartes’ appeal to a higher being as the source of perfection in logic.

Hooke (1635-1703):

Hooke, the Royal Society’s first Curator of Experiments from 1662-1677, considered science as way of improvingsociety. This was in contrast to medieval thought, where science and philosophy were done for knowledge’s sake alone and ideas weretested just to see if it could be done. An experimentalist who followed the Baconian tradition, Hooke agreed with Bacon’s ideathat “history of nature and the arts” was the basis of science.

8Hellyer, p 36
He was also a leader in publicizing microscopy (not discovering, it had been discovered 30years prior to his Micrographia).

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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