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René Descartes (1596-1650):Descartes disagreed with Galileo’s and Bacon’s experimental methods because he believedthat one could only:

“(1) Accept nothing as true that is not self-evident. (2) Divide problems into their simplest parts. (3)Solve problems by proceeding from simple to complex. (4) Recheck the reasoning.”

That these “4 laws of reasoning” followed from Descartes’ ideas onmathematics (he invented derivative and integral calculus in order to better explain natural law) gives the impression that Descartes,like many 17th century philosophers, were using advances in disciplines outside philosophy and science to enrich scientifictheory. Additionally, the laws set forth by Descartes promote the idea that he trusted only the fruits of human logic, not theresults of physical experimentation, because he believed that humans can only definitely know that “they think therefore theyare.” Thus, according to Descartes’s logic, we must doubt what we perceive physically (physical experimentation is imperfect) becauseour bodies are external to the mind (our only source of truth, as given by God).
5Hall, p 178
Even though Descartes denounced Baconian reasoning and medieval empiricism as shallow andimperfect, Descartes did believe that conclusions could come about through acceptance of a centrifugal system, in which one could workoutwards from the certainty of existence of mind and God to find universal truths or laws that could be detected by reason.
6Hall, p 179
It was to this aim that Descartes penned the above “4 laws of reasoning” – to eliminateunnecessary pollution of almost mathematically exact human reason.

Robert Boyle (1627-1691):

Boyle is an interesting case among the 17th century natural philosophers, in that he continued to use medievalteleology as well as 17th century Galilean mechanism and Baconian induction to explain events. Even though he made progress in thefield of chemistry through Baconian experimentation (fact-finding followed by controlled experimentation), he remained drawn toteleological explanations for scientific phenomena. For example, Boyle believed that because “God established rules of motion andthe corporeal order – laws of nature,” phenomena must exist to serve a certain purpose within that established order. Boyle usedthis idea as an explanation for how the “geometrical arrangement of the atoms defined the chemical characteristics of the substance.”

Overall, Boyle’s attachment to teleology was not so strange in the 17thcentury because of Descartes’ appeal to a higher being as the source of perfection in logic.

Hooke (1635-1703):

Hooke, the Royal Society’s first Curator of Experiments from 1662-1677, considered science as way of improvingsociety. This was in contrast to medieval thought, where science and philosophy were done for knowledge’s sake alone and ideas weretested just to see if it could be done. An experimentalist who followed the Baconian tradition, Hooke agreed with Bacon’s ideathat “history of nature and the arts” was the basis of science.

8Hellyer, p 36
He was also a leader in publicizing microscopy (not discovering, it had been discovered 30years prior to his Micrographia).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Nanotechnology: content and context. OpenStax CNX. May 09, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10418/1.1
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