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Foundation

We assume as our starting point the atomic molecular theory. That is, we assume that all matter is composed ofdiscrete particles. The elements consist of identical atoms, and compounds consist of identical molecules, which are particlescontaining small whole number ratios of atoms. We also assume that we have determined a complete set of relative atomic weights,allowing us to determine the molecular formula for any compound.

Goals

The individual molecules of different compounds have characteristic properties, such as mass, structure,geometry, bond lengths, bond angles, polarity, diamagnetism or paramagnetism. We have not yet considered the properties of massquantities of matter, such as density, phase (solid, liquid or gas) at room temperature, boiling and melting points, reactivity, and soforth. These are properties which are not exhibited by individual molecules. It makes no sense to ask what the boiling point of onemolecule is, nor does an individual molecule exist as a gas, solid, or liquid. However, we do expect that these material or bulkproperties are related to the properties of the individual molecules. Our ultimate goal is to relate the properties of theatoms and molecules to the properties of the materials which they comprise.

Achieving this goal will require considerable analysis. In this Concept Development Study, we begin at a somewhatmore fundamental level, with our goal to know more about the nature of gases, liquids and solids. We need to study the relationshipsbetween the physical properties of materials, such as density and temperature. We begin our study by examining these properties ingases.

Observation 1: pressure-volume measurements on gases

It is an elementary observation that air has a "spring" to it: if you squeeze a balloon, the balloon rebounds toits original shape. As you pump air into a bicycle tire, the air pushes back against the piston of the pump. Furthermore, thisresistance of the air against the piston clearly increases as the piston is pushed farther in. The "spring" of the air ismeasured as a pressure, where the pressure P is defined

P F A

F is the force exerted by the air on the surface of the piston head and A is the surface area of the piston head.

For our purposes, a simple pressure gauge is sufficient. We trap a small quantity of air in a syringe (a pistoninside a cylinder) connected to the pressure gauge, and measure both the volume of air trapped inside the syringe and the pressurereading on the gauge. In one such sample measurement, we might find that, at atmospheric pressure (760 torr), the volume of gas trappedinside the syringe is 29.0 ml. We then compress the syringe slightly, so that the volume is now 23.0 ml. We feel the increasedspring of the air, and this is registered on the gauge as an increase in pressure to 960 torr. It is simple to make manymeasurements in this manner. A sample set of data appears in . We note that, in agreement with our experience with gases, the pressure increases asthe volume decreases. These data are plotted here .

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Source:  OpenStax, General chemistry ii. OpenStax CNX. Mar 25, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10262/1.2
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