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[link] lists the derivation of the names of the Group 13 (IIIA) elements.

Derivation of the names of each of the alkali metal elements.
Element Symbol Name
Boron B From the Arabic word buraq or the Persian word burah for the mineral borax
Aluminium (Aluminum) Al From alum
Gallium Ga From Named after the Latin word for France (Gaul) Gallia
Indium In Latin rubidus meaning deepest red
Thalium Tl From the Latin thallus meaning sprouting green twig
Aluminium is the international spelling standardized by the IUPAC, but in the United States it is more commonly spelled as aluminum.



Borax (a mixture of Na 2 B 4 O 7 .4H 2 O and Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O) was known for thousands of years. In Tibet it was known by the Sanskrit name of tincal . Borax glazes were used in China in 300 AD, and the writings of the Arabic alchemist Geber ( [link] ) appear to mention it in 700 AD. However, it is known that Marco Polo brought some borax glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. In 1600 Agricola ( [link] ) in his treatise De Re Metallica reported the use of borax as a flux in metallurgy.

A drawing of the father of chemistry Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān al azdi known by Geber; the Latinized form of Jabir (721 - 815). Geber was a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
A painting of German author Georg Bauer (1494 - 1555), whose pen-name was the Latinized Georgius Agricola, was most probably the first person to be environmentally conscious.

Boron was not recognized as an element until its isolation by Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ), Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac ( [link] ) and Louis Jacques Thénard ( [link] ) in 1808 through the reaction of boric acid and potassium. Davy called the element boracium . Jöns Jakob Berzelius ( [link] ) identified boron as an element in 1824.

British chemist and inventor Sir Humphry Davy FRS (1778 - 1829).
French chemist and physicist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778 –1850).
French chemist Louis Jacques Thénard (1777 - 1857).
Swedish chemist Friherre Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848).


Ancient Greeks and Romans used aluminum salts as dyeing mordants and as astringents for dressing wounds; alum (KAl(SO 4 ) 2 .12H 2 O) is still used as a styptic (an antihaemorrhagic agent). In 1808, Sir Humphry Davy ( [link] ) identified the existence of a metal base of alum, which he at first termed alumium and later aluminum.

The metal was first produced in 1825 (in an impure form) by Hans Christian Ørsted ( [link] ) by the reaction of anhydrous aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam. Friedrich Wöhler ( [link] ) repeated the experiments of Ørsted but suggested that Ørsted had only isolated potassium. By the use of potassium, [link] , he is credited with isolating aluminum in 1827. While Wöhler is generally credited with isolating aluminum, Ørsted should also be given credit.

Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Ørsted (1777 - 1851).
German chemist Friedrich Wöhler (1800 - 1882) also known for his synthesis of urea and, thus, the founding of the field of natural products synthesis.

In 1846 Henri Deville ( [link] ) improved Wöhler's method, and described his improvements in particular the use of sodium in place of the expensive potassium

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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