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Oil is a prime example of peaking. Although the peak in United States oil production was famously predicted by M. King Hubbert 20 years before it occurred, successful predictions of peaks in world oil production depend on unknown factors and are notoriously difficult ( Owen, Inderwildi,&King, 2010 ; Hirsch, Bezdek,&Wendling, 2006 ). The fundamental challenges are the unknown remaining resources at each level of recovery cost and the unknown technology breakthroughs that may lower the recovery cost. Receding Arctic ice and the growing ability to drill deeper undersea wells promise to bring more oil resources within financial and technical reach, but quantitative estimates of their impact are, at best, tentative.

Crude Oil Reserves
Crude Oil Reserves The global distribution of crude oil resources. 1 Includes 172.7 billion barrels of bitumen in oil sands in Alberta, Canada. 2 Excludes countries that were part of the former U.S.S.R. See " Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)" in Glossary. 3 Includes only countries that were part of the former U.S.S.R. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Review, 2009, p. 312 (Aug. 2010)

Uneven geographical distribution of energy

The third sustainability challenge is the uneven geographical distribution of energy resources. Figure Crude Oil Reserves shows the distribution of crude oil reserves, with the Middle East having far more oil than any other region and Europe and Asia, two high population and high demand regions, with hardly any by comparison. This geographical imbalance between energy resources and energy use creates uncertainty and instability of supply. Weather events, natural disasters, terrorist activity or geopolitical decisions can all interrupt supply, with little recourse for the affected regions. Even if global reserves were abundant, their uneven geographical distribution creates an energy security issue for much of the world.

Co 2 Emissions and climate change

The final and most recent concern is carbon dioxide emissions and climate change (see Chapter Climate and Global Change ). Since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was established by the United Nations in 1988, awareness of the links among human carbon dioxide emissions, global warming and the potential for climate change has grown. Climate scientists worldwide have documented the evidence of global warming in surface air, land and sea temperatures, the rise of sea level, glacier ice and snow coverage, and ocean heat content ( Arndt, Baringer,&Johnson, 2010 ). Figure Temperature, Sea Level, and Snow Cover 1850-2000 shows three often quoted measures of global warming, the average surface temperature, the rise of sea level and the northern hemisphere snow cover.

Temperature, Sea Level, and Snow Cover 1850-2000
Temperature, Sea Level, and Snow Cover 1850-2000 Three graphs show trends in average surface temperature, average sea level and northern hemisphere snow cover from 1850-2000. Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report: Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, figure 1.1, page 31

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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Source:  OpenStax, Sustainability: a comprehensive foundation. OpenStax CNX. Nov 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11325/1.43
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