# Static electricity and charge: conservation of charge  (Page 4/8)

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No charge is actually created or destroyed when charges are separated as we have been discussing. Rather, existing charges are moved about. In fact, in all situations the total amount of charge is always constant. This universally obeyed law of nature is called the law of conservation of charge    .

## Law of conservation of charge

Total charge is constant in any process.

In more exotic situations, such as in particle accelerators, mass, $\Delta m$ , can be created from energy in the amount $\Delta m=\frac{E}{{c}^{2}}$ . Sometimes, the created mass is charged, such as when an electron is created. Whenever a charged particle is created, another having an opposite charge is always created along with it, so that the total charge created is zero. Usually, the two particles are “matter-antimatter” counterparts. For example, an antielectron would usually be created at the same time as an electron. The antielectron has a positive charge (it is called a positron), and so the total charge created is zero. (See [link] .) All particles have antimatter counterparts with opposite signs. When matter and antimatter counterparts are brought together, they completely annihilate one another. By annihilate, we mean that the mass of the two particles is converted to energy E , again obeying the relationship $\Delta m=\frac{E}{{c}^{2}}$ . Since the two particles have equal and opposite charge, the total charge is zero before and after the annihilation; thus, total charge is conserved.

## Making connections: conservation laws

Only a limited number of physical quantities are universally conserved. Charge is one—energy, momentum, and angular momentum are others. Because they are conserved, these physical quantities are used to explain more phenomena and form more connections than other, less basic quantities. We find that conserved quantities give us great insight into the rules followed by nature and hints to the organization of nature. Discoveries of conservation laws have led to further discoveries, such as the weak nuclear force and the quark substructure of protons and other particles.

The law of conservation of charge is absolute—it has never been observed to be violated. Charge, then, is a special physical quantity, joining a very short list of other quantities in nature that are always conserved. Other conserved quantities include energy, momentum, and angular momentum.

## Phet explorations: balloons and static electricity

Why does a balloon stick to your sweater? Rub a balloon on a sweater, then let go of the balloon and it flies over and sticks to the sweater. View the charges in the sweater, balloons, and the wall.

## Section summary

• There are only two types of charge, which we call positive and negative.
• Like charges repel, unlike charges attract, and the force between charges decreases with the square of the distance.
• The vast majority of positive charge in nature is carried by protons, while the vast majority of negative charge is carried by electrons.
• The electric charge of one electron is equal in magnitude and opposite in sign to the charge of one proton.
• An ion is an atom or molecule that has nonzero total charge due to having unequal numbers of electrons and protons.
• The SI unit for charge is the coulomb (C), with protons and electrons having charges of opposite sign but equal magnitude; the magnitude of this basic charge $\mid {q}_{e}\mid$ is
$\mid {q}_{e}\mid =1.60×{\text{10}}^{-\text{19}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{C}.$
• Whenever charge is created or destroyed, equal amounts of positive and negative are involved.
• Most often, existing charges are separated from neutral objects to obtain some net charge.
• Both positive and negative charges exist in neutral objects and can be separated by rubbing one object with another. For macroscopic objects, negatively charged means an excess of electrons and positively charged means a depletion of electrons.
• The law of conservation of charge ensures that whenever a charge is created, an equal charge of the opposite sign is created at the same time.

## Conceptual questions

There are very large numbers of charged particles in most objects. Why, then, don’t most objects exhibit static electricity?

Why do most objects tend to contain nearly equal numbers of positive and negative charges?

## Problems&Exercises

Common static electricity involves charges ranging from nanocoulombs to microcoulombs. (a) How many electrons are needed to form a charge of $–2.00\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{nC}$ (b) How many electrons must be removed from a neutral object to leave a net charge of $0.500\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}µ\text{C}$ ?

(a) $1.25×{\text{10}}^{\text{10}}$

(b) $3.13×{\text{10}}^{\text{12}}$

If $1\text{.}\text{80}×{\text{10}}^{\text{20}}$ electrons move through a pocket calculator during a full day’s operation, how many coulombs of charge moved through it?

To start a car engine, the car battery moves $3\text{.}\text{75}×{\text{10}}^{\text{21}}$ electrons through the starter motor. How many coulombs of charge were moved?

-600 C

A certain lightning bolt moves 40.0 C of charge. How many fundamental units of charge $\mid {q}_{e}\mid$ is this?

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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