The focus of this course is on digital communication, which
involves transmission of information, in its most general sense,from source to destination using digital technology.
Engineering such a system requires modeling both the informationand the transmission media. Interestingly, modeling both digital
or analog information and many physical media requires aprobabilistic setting. In this chapter and in the next one we
will review the theory of probability, model random signals, andcharacterize their behavior as they traverse through
deterministic systems disturbed by noise and interference. Inorder to develop practical models for random phenomena we start
with carrying out a random experiment. We then introducedefinitions, rules, and axioms for modeling within the context
of the experiment. The outcome of a random experiment isdenoted by
$$ . The sample
space
$$ is the set of
all possible outcomes of a random experiment. Such outcomescould be an abstract description in words. A scientific
experiment should indeed be repeatable where each outcome couldnaturally have an associated probability of occurrence. This is
defined formally as the ratio of the number of times the outcomeoccurs to the total number of times the experiment is repeated.
Random variables
A random variable is the assignment of a real number to each
outcome of a random experiment.
Roll a dice. Outcomes
$\{{}_{1}, {}_{2}, {}_{3}, {}_{4}, {}_{5}, {}_{6}\}$
The cumulative distribution function of a random variable
$X$ is a function
$F(X, (\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R}))$ such that
$$F(X, b)=(X\le b)=(\{\in \colon X()\le b\})$$
Continuous Random Variable
A random variable
$X$ is
continuous if the cumulative distribution function can bewritten in an integral form, or
$$F(X, b)=\int_{()} \,d x$$∞bfXx
and
$f(X, x)$ is the probability density function (pdf) (
e.g. ,
$F(X, x)$ is differentiable and
$f(X, x)=\frac{d F(X, x)}{d x}$ )
Discrete Random Variable
A random variable
$X$ is
discrete if it only takes at most countably many points(
i.e. ,
$F(X, )$ is piecewise constant). The probability mass function (pmf) is
defined as
$${R}_{XY}=\langle X{Y}^{*}\rangle =\begin{cases}\int_{()} \,d y & \text{if $$}\end{cases}$$∞∞x∞∞xy*fXYxyX and Y are jointly continuouskkllxkyl*pXYxkylX and Y are jointly discrete
the total number of people at a given area or country
Clement
total number of people in a given area or country
okhiria
What is price Elasticity of demand?.
Samuel
The responsiveness of the quantity of a commodity demanded to a change in its price, expressed as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price.
EMMANUEL
why is it that the long run Average cost doesn't touch the short run cost curve at its minimum?
Baah
what is supply
Precious
please rice and beans will be what type of demand but note we mostly cook it together
It can be define as a big transaction that can control any business for one place to another base.
Akinlo
money is recognisable note to accept both parties selling and buying
Hassan
i don still understan
Rene
hey
Abdul
hi
Rene
money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange
Awwal
Money is anything generally accepted as a medium of exchange and for the settlement of goods and services .
Korda
hi good ppl, pls help out
Tumi
discuss human and natural resources as develop strategies ro improving living condition of citizens in developing countries.
Tumi
I don't understand the question.
Naomi
it's a form of currency used for 2 or more individuals or parties in order to reach their amicable personal or business attainment. one must understand that money itself can manifest in multiple fashions for which the individuals or parties adheres.
are u trying to say we shld discuss ways in which human natural resources help in improving living condition of citizens in developing countries?
Naomi
money is a legal thunder generally accepted as a medium of exchange for the payment of debt ,goods and services
Naomi
money is a way of payment.
Carlos
money is any thing that is generally accepted as a medium of exchange good for good and settlement of debt and means of payment
Yillah
money is nothing but a object which is used for exchange of goods and services.
Harshita
money is anything that is generally accepted as payment of goods and services and settlement of debt
demand is where the customer is willing and able to buy goods and services during a given period of time
idk
demand is the ability and willingness of an individual to buy goods and services at a given price in a particular period of time
Alpha
demand is the ability to buy a specific quantities of goods and services at a given price and at a specific period of time
rosemary
what are the rules of demand
rosemary
Rosemary Nsebon, Do you mean laws of demand?
Alpha
what are the rules of demand
Rene
the rule of demand is the higher the price the lower the quantity demanded and the lower the price the higher the quantity demanded
mbi
thank
Rene
what is unemployment
Rebecca
unemployment is a scenario or a phenomenon in an economy whereby people are willing are able to work but cannot a job
mbi
Suppose you have a team of two workers: one is a baker and one is a chef. Explain why the kitchen can produce more meals in a given period of time if each worker specializes in what they do best than if each worker tries to do everything from appetizer to dessert. please I need a urgent answer
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.