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The focus of this course is on digital communication, which involves transmission of information, in its most general sense,from source to destination using digital technology. Engineering such a system requires modeling both the informationand the transmission media. Interestingly, modeling both digital or analog information and many physical media requires aprobabilistic setting. In this chapter and in the next one we will review the theory of probability, model random signals, andcharacterize their behavior as they traverse through deterministic systems disturbed by noise and interference. Inorder to develop practical models for random phenomena we start with carrying out a random experiment. We then introducedefinitions, rules, and axioms for modeling within the context of the experiment. The outcome of a random experiment isdenoted by . The sample space is the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment. Such outcomescould be an abstract description in words. A scientific experiment should indeed be repeatable where each outcome couldnaturally have an associated probability of occurrence. This is defined formally as the ratio of the number of times the outcomeoccurs to the total number of times the experiment is repeated.

Random variables

A random variable is the assignment of a real number to each outcome of a random experiment.

Roll a dice. Outcomes 1 2 3 4 5 6

i = i dots on the face of the dice.

X i i

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Probability assignments on intervals a X b

Cumulative distribution
The cumulative distribution function of a random variable X is a function F X such that
F X b X b X b
Continuous Random Variable
A random variable X is continuous if the cumulative distribution function can bewritten in an integral form, or
F X b x b f X x
and f X x is the probability density function (pdf) ( e.g. , F X x is differentiable and f X x x F X x )
Discrete Random Variable
A random variable X is discrete if it only takes at most countably many points( i.e. , F X is piecewise constant). The probability mass function (pmf) is defined as
p X x k X x k F X x k x x x k x x k F X x

Two random variables defined on an experiment have joint distribution

F X Y a b X a Y b X a Y b

Joint pdf can be obtained if they are jointly continuous

F X Y a b y b x a f X Y x y
( e.g. , f X Y x y x y F X Y x y )

Joint pmf if they are jointly discrete

p X Y x k y l X x k Y y l

Conditional density function

f Y | X y | x f X Y x y f X x
for all x with f X x 0 otherwise conditional density is not defined for those valuesof x with f X x 0

Two random variables are independent if

f X Y x y f X x f Y y
for all x and y . For discrete random variables,
p X Y x k y l p X x k p Y y l
for all k and l .


Statistical quantities to represent some of the characteristics of a random variable.

g X g X x g x f X x continuous k k g x k p X x k discrete
  • Mean
    X X
  • Second moment
    X 2 X 2
  • Variance
    Var X X X X 2 X 2 X 2
  • Characteristic function
    X u u X
    for u , where 1
  • Correlation between two random variables
    R X Y X Y * y x x y * f X Y x y X and Y are jointly continuous k k l l x k y l * p X Y x k y l X and Y are jointly discrete
  • Covariance
    C X Y Cov X Y X X Y Y * R X Y X Y *
  • Correlation coefficient
    X Y Cov X Y X Y

Uncorrelated random variables
Two random variables X and Y are uncorrelated if X Y 0 .

Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
what is money
Difine macro economics
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
what are implications of computing national income?.
what is the formulae for calculating national income
it calculated by value added method
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
politics has done what?
consider time assani
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
thanks Alae
u are welcome
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Don't get you
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digital communication systems. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10134/1.3
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