The focus of this course is on digital communication, which
involves transmission of information, in its most general sense,from source to destination using digital technology.
Engineering such a system requires modeling both the informationand the transmission media. Interestingly, modeling both digital
or analog information and many physical media requires aprobabilistic setting. In this chapter and in the next one we
will review the theory of probability, model random signals, andcharacterize their behavior as they traverse through
deterministic systems disturbed by noise and interference. Inorder to develop practical models for random phenomena we start
with carrying out a random experiment. We then introducedefinitions, rules, and axioms for modeling within the context
of the experiment. The outcome of a random experiment isdenoted by
$$ . The sample
space
$$ is the set of
all possible outcomes of a random experiment. Such outcomescould be an abstract description in words. A scientific
experiment should indeed be repeatable where each outcome couldnaturally have an associated probability of occurrence. This is
defined formally as the ratio of the number of times the outcomeoccurs to the total number of times the experiment is repeated.
Random variables
A random variable is the assignment of a real number to each
outcome of a random experiment.
Roll a dice. Outcomes
$\{{}_{1}, {}_{2}, {}_{3}, {}_{4}, {}_{5}, {}_{6}\}$
The cumulative distribution function of a random variable
$X$ is a function
$F(X, (\mathbb{R}, \mathbb{R}))$ such that
$$F(X, b)=(X\le b)=(\{\in \colon X()\le b\})$$
Continuous Random Variable
A random variable
$X$ is
continuous if the cumulative distribution function can bewritten in an integral form, or
$$F(X, b)=\int_{()} \,d x$$∞bfXx
and
$f(X, x)$ is the probability density function (pdf) (
e.g. ,
$F(X, x)$ is differentiable and
$f(X, x)=\frac{d F(X, x)}{d x}$ )
Discrete Random Variable
A random variable
$X$ is
discrete if it only takes at most countably many points(
i.e. ,
$F(X, )$ is piecewise constant). The probability mass function (pmf) is
defined as
$${R}_{XY}=\langle X{Y}^{*}\rangle =\begin{cases}\int_{()} \,d y & \text{if $$}\end{cases}$$∞∞x∞∞xy*fXYxyX and Y are jointly continuouskkllxkyl*pXYxkylX and Y are jointly discrete
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
Alao
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
bisham
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Frank
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Frank
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
The main causes of unemployment are listed below.
1. Frictional unemployment
2. Cyclical unemployment
3. Structural unemployment
assani
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as:
1. Political and
2. Social cause
As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
Yonathan
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
assani
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
BADAMASIU
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
assani
Politics
Job
politics has done what?
assani
consider time assani
Mary
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
Emmanuel
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
Emmanuel
🙈
Emmanuel
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
Emmanuel
I think the main causes of unemployment is lack of INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT
OVER POPULATION
OVER DEPENDENT ON GOVERNMENT
LACK OF SELF EMPOWERMENT...
ananti
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Vishal
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
Joe
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
Joe
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy?
Please am kinda lost here?.
ta
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
dajan
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Alao
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
Emmanuel
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
Alao
thanks Alae
Emmanuel
u are welcome
Alao
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
sj
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
Seth
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Joe
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Pranav
Don't get you
Anita
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
Onyeking
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Pranav
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis