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Gallium pnictides

Gallium's main use is in semiconductor technology. For example, GaAs and related compounds can convert electricity directly into coherent light (laser diodes) and is employed in electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LED's); it is also used for doping other semiconductors and in solid-state devices such as heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and high power high speed metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs). The compound MgGa 2 O 4 is used in ultraviolet-activated powders as a brilliant green phosphor used in Xerox copying machines. Minor uses are as high-temperature liquid seals, manometric fluids and heat-transfer media, and for low-temperature solders.

Undoubtedly the binary compounds of gallium with the most industrial interest are those of the Group 15 (V) elements, GaE (E = N, P, As, Sb). The compounds which gallium forms with nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony are isoelectronic with the Group 14 elements. There has been considerable interest, particularly in the physical properties of these compounds, since 1952 when Welker first showed that they had semiconducting properties analogous to those of silicon and germanium.

Gallium phosphide, arsenide, and antimonide can all be prepared by direct reaction of the elements; this is normally done in sealed silica tubes or in a graphite crucible under hydrogen. Phase diagram data is hard to obtain in the gallium-phosphorus system because of loss of phosphorus from the bulk material at elevated temperatures. Thus, GaP has a vapor pressure of more than 13.5 atm at its melting point; as compared to 0.89 atm for GaAs. The physical properties of these three compounds are compared with those of the nitride in [link] . All three adopt the zinc blende crystal structure and are more highly conducting than gallium nitride.

Physical properties of 13-15 compound semiconductors. a Values given for 300 K. b Dependent on photon energy; values given for 1.5 eV incident photons. c Dependent on temperature; values given for 300 K.
Property GaN GaP GaAs GaSb
Melting point (°C) >1250 (dec) 1350 1240 712
Density (g/cm 3 ) ca. 6.1 4.138 5.3176 5.6137
Crystal structure Würtzite zinc blende zinc blende zinc blende
Cell dimen. (Å) a a = 3.187, c = 5.186 a = 5.4505 a = 5.6532 a = 6.0959
Refractive index b 2.35 3.178 3.666 4.388
k (ohm -1 cm -1 ) 10 -9 - 10 -7 10 -2 - 10 2 10 -6 - 10 3 6 - 13
Band gap (eV) c 3.44 2.24 1.424 0.71

Gallium arsenide versus silicon

Gallium arsenide is a compound semiconductor with a combination of physical properties that has made it an attractive candidate for many electronic applications. From a comparison of various physical and electronic properties of GaAs with those of Si ( [link] ) the advantages of GaAs over Si can be readily ascertained. Unfortunately, the many desirable properties of gallium arsenide are offset to a great extent by a number of undesirable properties, which have limited the applications of GaAs based devices to date.

Comparison of physical and semiconductor properties of GaAs and Si.
Properties GaAs Si
Formula weight 144.63 28.09
Crystal structure zinc blende diamond
Lattice constant 5.6532 5.43095
Melting point (°C) 1238 1415
Density (g/cm 3 ) 5.32 2.328
Thermal conductivity (W/cm.K) 0.46 1.5
Band gap (eV) at 300 K 1.424 1.12
Intrinsic carrier conc. (cm -3 ) 1.79 x 10 6 1.45 x 10 10
Intrinsic resistivity (ohm.cm) 10 8 2.3 x 10 5
Breakdown field (V/cm) 4 x 10 5 3 x 10 5
Minority carrier lifetime (s) 10 -8 2.5 x 10 -3
Mobility (cm 2 /V.s) 8500 1500

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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absolutely yes
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characteristics of micro business
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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