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For researchers who perform massive simulations on distributed computing systems, portals mean Web environments that make computing resources and services accessible via Web browsers. Such portals are typically referred to as Grid portals, or science gateways. Grid portals are Web interfaces that are integrated with PC, cluster or supercomputer based computing resources. These environments very often include high level services that are not included in the underlying infrastructure, they are implemented on the portal server instead. Such services can be brokers, load balancers, data replica services, data mirroring and indexing components. All these services together with the front-end portal provide an integrated solution that enables e-scientists to deal with various aspects of data-intensive research. Usage scenarios in such portals often involve the generation and storing of research data, analysis of massive datasets, drawing scientific conclusions and sharing all these entities with colleagues or with the general public. Scientists of these portals tend to organize their frequently used steps of simulations into reusable components, called workflows. Workflows provide repeatable, traceable experiments and improve both the productivity and quality of research.

Hardware resources, software services, applications and workflows that are made accessible through Grid portals are typically provided by multiple independent organizations and are managed by different administrators. Portals connect to these distributed entities in a service oriented fashion, namely through well defined interfaces that expose the functionality of each shared component. For the sake of scalability and fault tolerance these services are accessed by the portal through some catalogues. A typical difficulty of portal design is how to integrate the content from the dynamic services of the catalog into a user friendly view that is ergonomic, provides coherent information, and at the same time flexible and easily customizable for different user preferences.

In the early years of Grid computing the portal systems were implemented using various different programming approaches and languages. Despite Grid solutions have much simplified since those early years, developers of science gateways must still know relatively high number of technologies. Portal operators must closely follow the evolution of Grid middleware services, because updates on the portal are required when the Grid middleware is changed. While enterprise portals also demand regular updates due to changes in the back-end systems, the technological evolution in Grid computing is more rapid than in business environments. As grid portals shield users away from middleware evolution, they are very often the only way for scientists to stay connected with Grids over longer period of time.

There are a few other technical difficulties that are specific to Grid portals. The issue of how to map the security model of Grid systems to the security model of the “Web” is one of these. While Web portals identify and authenticate users with account-password pairs, Grids and other sorts of distributed computing environments use certificates. Certificates enable users to authenticate only once in a distributed system and perform complex operations without being asked for account details over and over again (e.g. in every stage of the orchestration of a workflow). By certificates the users can delegate their access rights to workflow managers, brokers, catalogs and other services that perform activities on their behalf. Grid portals typically translate username-password pairs to certificates by either through certificate repositories (such as MyProxy), or by importing certificates from Web browsers.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Research in a connected world. OpenStax CNX. Nov 22, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10677/1.12
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