# Phasors: introduction

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#### Notes to teachers and students:

Phasors! For those who understand them, they are of incomparable value for the study of elementary and advanced topics. For those who misunderstand them, they are a constant source of confusion and are of no apparent use. So, let's understand them.

The conceptual leap from the complex number ${e}^{j\theta }$ to the phasor ${e}^{j\left(\omega t+\theta \right)}$ comes in "Phasor Representation of Signals" . Take as long as necessary to understand every geometrical and algebraic nuance. Write the MATLAB program in "Exercise 6" to fix the key ideas once and for all. Then use phasors to study beating between tones, multiphase power, and Lissajous figures in "Beating between Tones" through "Lissajous Figures" . We usually conduct a classroom demonstration of beating between tones usingtwo phase-locked sources, an oscilloscope, and a speaker. We also demonstrate Lissajous figures with this hardware.

"Sinusoidal Steady State and the Series RLC Circuit" and Light Scattering by a Slit" on sinusoidal steady state and light scattering are too demanding for freshmen but are right on target for sophomores. Thesesections may be covered in a sophomore course (or a supplement to a sophomore course) or skipped in a freshman course without consequence.

In the numerical experiment in "Numerical Experiment (Interference Patterns)" , students compute and plot interference patterns for two sinusoids that are out of phase.

#### Introduction

In engineering and applied science, three test signals form the basis for our study of electrical and mechanical systems. The impulse is an idealized signal that models very short excitations (like current pulses, hammer blows, pile drives, and light flashes). The step is an idealized signal that models excitations that are switched on and stay on (like current in a relay that closes or a transistor that switches). The sinusoid is an idealized signal that models excitations that oscillate with a regular frequency (like AC power, AM radio, pure musical tones, and harmonic vibrations). All three signals are used in the laboratory to design and analyze electrical and mechanical circuits, control systems, radio antennas, and the like. The sinusoidal signal is particularly important because it may be used to determine the frequency selectivity of a circuit (like a superheterodyne radio receiver) to excitations of different frequencies. For this reason, every manufacturer of electronics test equipment builds sinusoidal oscillators that may be swept through many octaves of Orequency. (Hewlett-Packard was started in 1940 with the famous HP audio oscillator.)

In this chapter we use what we have learned about complex numbers and the function ${e}^{j\theta }$ to develop a phasor calculus for representing and ma- nipulating sinusoids. This calculus operates very much like the calculus wedeveloped in "Complex Numbers" and "The Functions e x and e " for manipulating complex numbers. We ap- ply our calculus to the study of beating phenomena, multiphase power, series RLC circuits, and light scattering by a slit.

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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
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why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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