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A basic understanding of human perception of sound is vital if you wish to design music synthesis algorithms to achieve your goals. In this module you will learn about pitch and frequency, intensity and amplitude, harmonics, and tuning systems. The treatment of these concepts is oriented to the creation of music synthesis algorithms.
This module refers to LabVIEW, a software development environment that features a graphical programming language. Please see the LabVIEW QuickStart Guide module for tutorials and documentation that will help you:
•Apply LabVIEW to Audio Signal Processing
•Get started with LabVIEW
•Obtain a fully-functional evaluation edition of LabVIEW


A basic understanding of human perception of sound is vital if you wish to design music synthesis algorithms to achieve your goals. Human hearing and other senses operate quite well in a relative sense. That is, people perceive properties of sound such as pitch and intensity and make relative comparisons. Moreover, people make these comparisons over an enormous dynamic range: they can listen to two people whispering in a quiet auditorium and determine which person is whispering the loudest. During a rock concert in the same auditorium, attendees can determine which vocalist is singing the loudest. However, once the rock concert is in progress, they can no longer hear someone whispering! Senses can adapt to a wide range of conditions, but can make relative comparisons only over a fairly narrow range.

In this module you will learn about pitch and frequency , intensity and amplitude , harmonics and overtones , and tuning systems . The treatment of these concepts is oriented to creating music synthesis algorithms. Connexions offers many excellent modules authored by Catherine Schmidt-Jones that treat these concepts in a music theory context, and some of these documents are referenced in the discussion below. For example, Acoustics for Music Theory describes acoustics in a musical setting, and is a good refresher on audio signals.

Pitch and frequency

Pitch is the human perception of frequency . Often the terms are used interchangeably, but they are actually distinct concepts. Musicians normally refer to the pitch of a signal rather than its frequency; see Pitch: Sharp, Flat, and Natural Notes and The Circle of Fifths .

Perception of frequency is logarithmic in nature. For example, a change in frequency from 400 Hz to 600 Hz will not sound the same as a change from 200 Hz to 400 Hz, even though the difference between each of these frequency pairs is 200 Hz. Instead, you perceive changes in pitch based on the ratio of the two frequencies; in the previous example, the ratios are 1.5 and 2.0, respectively, and the latter pitch pair would sound like a greater change in frequency. Musical Intervals, Frequency, and Ratio offers additional insights.

Often it is desirable to synthesize an audio signal so that its perceived pitch follows a specific trajectory . For example, suppose that the pitch should begin at a low frequency, gradually increase to a high frequency, and then gradually decrease back to the original. Furthermore, suppose that you should perceive a uniform rate of change in the frequency.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Musical signal processing with labview (all modules). OpenStax CNX. Jan 05, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10507/1.3
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