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5.1.1.2 blueprint for development of achievement speaking tests at tnu

A blueprint which has been discussed in 2.3.2 (Chapter 2) includes the number of test tasks/parts and specifications of each task. The blueprint is suggested as major guidelines for TNU staff to construct their speaking tests.

As discussed in 2.4.2 (Chapter 2), a test of speaking ability that enables assessors or examiners to elicit a test taker’s overall oral proficiency should consist of at least two tasks or elicitation techniques. Undoubtedly, a speaking test making use of two or more tasks or elicitation techniques is said to have construct validity and reliability. Regarding the speaking tests of several popular published exams, a test of overall oral ability always has two or three tasks/parts. For instance, BEC (Business English Certificates) and IELTS (International English Language Tests) have a three-task speaking section, or Let’s Talk presents speaking tests involving two tasks/parts. Thus, it would be advisable to design a blueprint for speaking tests at TNU including two tasks or elicitation techniques.

The following are the suggested components of the blueprint for an achievement oral test.

1. Test structure

1.1 Number of tasks/parts:2 tasks

Language, as discussed in 2.1 (Chapter 2), has two functions, so assessment of students’ ability to use the language orally is to involve these both functions. Furthermore, length of spoken language production is also the basis for this kind of assessment (See Figure 2.1, page 6).

Task 1:Interactional and transactional short turns

The purpose of this task is to evaluate students’ progress in taking interactional and transactional short turns.

Task 2:Transactional long turns

The purpose of this task is to evaluate students’ progress in taking transactional long turns.

1.2 Relative importance of the tasks

This importance ranges on the continuum of spoken language production (Figure 2.1) according to students’ levels of language proficiency. For instance, in a test for first-year students, Task 1 is more important than Task 2.

2. Test task specifications

The purpose of the task

The specified components of oral ability to be tested

The place where the task occurs

Specified and understandable instructions

Expected duration of task performance

Areas of linguistic, pragmatic and topical knowledge adequate

Marking key

Concerning criteria for scoring, based on the discussion on a marking key in 2.4.3 (Chapter 2), the researcher suggests combining the two models of mark categories, i.e. the traditional model and the model of performance criteria, since doing so means that linguistic accuracy is not neglected and objectives of the course or the teaching are not thus neglected either. That is to say, we as language teachers never want to neglect linguistic forms when instructing students. Therefore, this thesis recommends the marking scales adapted from PET Speaking Test by University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, representing a combination of these two model. These marking scales are used in the marking key of two sample achievement tests introduced in the next sub-section 5.1.2

Questions & Answers

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research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
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of graphene you mean?
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or in general
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in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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