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Thirdly, as shown in Table 4.7, for Question 3 option (a) has been selected by only 4 subjects, which means that the majority are able to realize the need to include more than one task or elicitation technique in a test of overall speaking ability as discussed in 2.3.2 (Chapter 2). However, in their selection of proper elicitation techniques or tasks for each level, they reveal their inability to recognize the difficulty level of the given elicitation techniques according to communicative stress (Figure 2.1 – Chapter 2), particularly the difficulty of the tasks themselves. To prove this, as shown in Table 4.8, only 2 out of 12 subjects have chosen (d) (the correct answer) for the first level and (c) (the correct answer) for the second level while 6 subjects have chosen (g) (the wrong answer) for the first level.

Besides, this failure is more strongly confirmed by the information gathered from Question 5. As shown in Table 4.9, only 2 out of 12 subjects have chosen (e) (the correct answer) for the first level, 3 have chosen (d) (the correct answer) for the second level, and 2 have chosen (h) (the correct answer) for the third level whereas up to 9 of them have chosen (c) (the wrong answer) for the second level, and 10 have chosen (d) (the wrong answer) for the third level. This result suggests that most of TNU English teaching staff are unable to recognize the difficulty level based on the relationship within each specified task as mentioned in 2.1 (Chapter 2).

Fourthly, as regards all the steps to be sufficiently considered in the development process of speaking tests as described in 2.4 (Chapter 2), only half of the subjects (6/12) have selected option (e) (Table 4.10), and the other options have not been chosen by all the subjects. This partly reveals the subjects’ incomplete grasp of language test development. As shown in Table 4.7 (Question 3), there is a great agreement on combining more than one kind of elicitation techniques in a test of overall speaking ability (8 subjects/12). However, in relation to the requirements in the development process of a speaking test, half of them have failed to recognize the importance of identifying the number of test tasks or elicitation techniques included in a speaking test.

Lastly, concerning the usefulness of the oral tests in use at TNU, 10 out of 12 subjects, as revealed in Table 4.11 (Question 7), do not entirely believe that their marks given on the students’ oral test performance could reveal the students’ actual speaking ability. These 10 teachers have all chosen option (a), as shown in Table 4.12, which implies that in most of the oral tests the students were informed of the topics or test questions during the class time, and they were well prepared for what they were going to speak before the real tests actually occurred. Such speaking tests can thus be said to lack authenticity, defined as ‘the degree of correspondence of the characteristics of a given language test task to a target language use task’ (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 23), because they do not represent real life language use. Therefore, many of the teachers (7/10) think that the elicitation techniques commonly used in most of the tests are unable to elicit the students’ actual speaking ability (option c). In addition, half of them (5/10) have selected the other two reasons for their low confidence in their own given marks. For the first reason, perhaps they think the students could even guess and prepare what they could be asked about as in many cases the topics or test questions were given beforehand. For the second reason, they have had no specified assessment criteria or guideline to base their marking on as described in 4.1.1. As a result, they have had to ‘design’ their own criteria.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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