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Thirdly, as shown in Table 4.7, for Question 3 option (a) has been selected by only 4 subjects, which means that the majority are able to realize the need to include more than one task or elicitation technique in a test of overall speaking ability as discussed in 2.3.2 (Chapter 2). However, in their selection of proper elicitation techniques or tasks for each level, they reveal their inability to recognize the difficulty level of the given elicitation techniques according to communicative stress (Figure 2.1 – Chapter 2), particularly the difficulty of the tasks themselves. To prove this, as shown in Table 4.8, only 2 out of 12 subjects have chosen (d) (the correct answer) for the first level and (c) (the correct answer) for the second level while 6 subjects have chosen (g) (the wrong answer) for the first level.

Besides, this failure is more strongly confirmed by the information gathered from Question 5. As shown in Table 4.9, only 2 out of 12 subjects have chosen (e) (the correct answer) for the first level, 3 have chosen (d) (the correct answer) for the second level, and 2 have chosen (h) (the correct answer) for the third level whereas up to 9 of them have chosen (c) (the wrong answer) for the second level, and 10 have chosen (d) (the wrong answer) for the third level. This result suggests that most of TNU English teaching staff are unable to recognize the difficulty level based on the relationship within each specified task as mentioned in 2.1 (Chapter 2).

Fourthly, as regards all the steps to be sufficiently considered in the development process of speaking tests as described in 2.4 (Chapter 2), only half of the subjects (6/12) have selected option (e) (Table 4.10), and the other options have not been chosen by all the subjects. This partly reveals the subjects’ incomplete grasp of language test development. As shown in Table 4.7 (Question 3), there is a great agreement on combining more than one kind of elicitation techniques in a test of overall speaking ability (8 subjects/12). However, in relation to the requirements in the development process of a speaking test, half of them have failed to recognize the importance of identifying the number of test tasks or elicitation techniques included in a speaking test.

Lastly, concerning the usefulness of the oral tests in use at TNU, 10 out of 12 subjects, as revealed in Table 4.11 (Question 7), do not entirely believe that their marks given on the students’ oral test performance could reveal the students’ actual speaking ability. These 10 teachers have all chosen option (a), as shown in Table 4.12, which implies that in most of the oral tests the students were informed of the topics or test questions during the class time, and they were well prepared for what they were going to speak before the real tests actually occurred. Such speaking tests can thus be said to lack authenticity, defined as ‘the degree of correspondence of the characteristics of a given language test task to a target language use task’ (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 23), because they do not represent real life language use. Therefore, many of the teachers (7/10) think that the elicitation techniques commonly used in most of the tests are unable to elicit the students’ actual speaking ability (option c). In addition, half of them (5/10) have selected the other two reasons for their low confidence in their own given marks. For the first reason, perhaps they think the students could even guess and prepare what they could be asked about as in many cases the topics or test questions were given beforehand. For the second reason, they have had no specified assessment criteria or guideline to base their marking on as described in 4.1.1. As a result, they have had to ‘design’ their own criteria.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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