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  • Use of test results

The last factor under evaluation involves ways of how test results or students’ final scores in test performance are used. As previously described in 4.1, students’ oral test scores are used to grade them in terms of their progress or achievement after a term/course of study. This is the most popular and common purpose of all achievement tests, that is to make the final decision on students’ proficiency kept in their study record in the form of grades. Furthermore, teachers and students are really interested in receiving feedback on students’ progress which helps students ‘guide their own subsequent learning’, and helps teachers ‘modify their teaching methods and materials so as to make them more appropriate for their students’ needs, interests and capabilities’ (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 98). However, TNU students’ test scores have never been used to either evaluate the effectiveness of instructional programs or make any improvement in teachers’ teaching methods and materials. In other words, oral testing at this institution has no effect on the teaching and learning of speaking skill which is named negative washback or backwash by Hughes (1989), Heaton (1988) and McNamara (2000). Information regarding inferences about students’ proficiency made from test performance can be really useful for assessing the efficiency of a teaching program as well as teachers (Bachman&Palmer, 1996, p. 98).

In conclusion, the analysis of TNU current practices of developing oral language tests reveals a number of weaknesses as follows:

There is no principled basis for oral test operationalization and administration

Oral tests in use lack construct validity and reliability

There is lack of consideration of communicative stress in oral test operationalization

There is lack of test administration standardisation

There is lack of a supportive test taking environment

These current practices are thus far from being consistent with the theoretical framework for test development.

4.2 evaluation of tnu staff’s perceptions of oral testing

As previously mentioned, the questionnaire survey was carried out on 12 members of TNU English teaching staff with the purpose of investigating their perceptions of oral language testing. The questionnaire consists of 10 questions, 8 of which help to elicit the staff’s perceptions of oral testing, and the other two indicate the staff’s working experience and their qualifications in language testing. Concerning information elicited about the staff’s perceptions, in particular, questions 1&2 reveal their awareness of the two functions of spoken language, questions 3 of the number of oral test types and elicitation techniques involved in a test, questions 4&5 of communicative stress in tasks suitable to students’ proficiency levels, and question 6 of the procedure for oral test design and operationalization. Meanwhile questions 7&8 elicit the teachers’ reliability degree within their own inferences about students’ oral test performance. This section (1) presents the data collected from the teachers’ responses to all the questions of the questionnaire, and (2) analyses the data to evaluate their understanding of this kind of assessment.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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