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First, before test administration there has been no official meeting - named ‘the standardisation meeting ’ by Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995)- for discussion and agreement on how to mark each question/task among the group of assessors. Perhaps the administrators here tend to think the assessors, as language teachers, must obviously know how to fully elicit the students’ oral proficiency, so they do not need to be informed of what to do during the test. Even when the assessors can be aware of the importance of this meeting, they are unable to hold it. It is partially because the staff’s insufficient knowledge of oral testing cannot help them to design an appropriate marking key and a reasonable description of mark categories with a mark criterion.

Therefore, before test administration, a marking key and a mark criterion for mark categories are first needed from test designers, and then a considerable amount of time must be spent on discussion to reach agreement on the way to mark each question/task. Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.112) maintain, ‘although this is likely to be expensive, it is the safest way of ensuring that enough discussion will take place for all examiners to understand thoroughly the level scale and the procedures for scoring.’ All these things aim at assuring reliability of an achievement speaking test.

Second, Table 4.3 reveals that, during the students’ test performance, interaction hardly existed between the assessors and the test takers or students apart from 2 students out of 10. These two students were asked 1 or 2 questions. Moreover, the duration of these 10 students’ test performance varies 2 minutes on average. As discussed in 2.1- Chapter 2, spoken language has two functions, interactional and transactional, which are both necessarily incorporated into a speaking test. In fact, in most of the oral tests in use at TNU, namely the achievement test mentioned above, the students are expected to merely produce transactional instances of the language. Can such tests be considered to be able to measure test takers’ or students’ overall oral proficiency? The answer is surely no because they reveals no interactive communication. This also means that the assessors gave scores just on the students’ presentation, which also surely indicates a lack of validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Last but not least, as regards a supportive testing environment the oral tests were almost administered in noisy rooms. Students should be put at ease before and during their performance, which can increase their confidence. Bachman&Palmer (1996), hence, demonstrate that it is crucial to maintain a supportive environment throughout the test, that is to avoid distractions due to temperature, noise, excessive movement, etc. In order to do this, test administrators and assessors are to be in control of techniques and create an atmosphere which will help each student to feel at ease (Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.116). For those students waiting for their turn should be sitting in a comfortable room, not standing along the corridor and talking so as not to affect the others’ performance.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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