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First, before test administration there has been no official meeting - named ‘the standardisation meeting ’ by Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995)- for discussion and agreement on how to mark each question/task among the group of assessors. Perhaps the administrators here tend to think the assessors, as language teachers, must obviously know how to fully elicit the students’ oral proficiency, so they do not need to be informed of what to do during the test. Even when the assessors can be aware of the importance of this meeting, they are unable to hold it. It is partially because the staff’s insufficient knowledge of oral testing cannot help them to design an appropriate marking key and a reasonable description of mark categories with a mark criterion.

Therefore, before test administration, a marking key and a mark criterion for mark categories are first needed from test designers, and then a considerable amount of time must be spent on discussion to reach agreement on the way to mark each question/task. Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.112) maintain, ‘although this is likely to be expensive, it is the safest way of ensuring that enough discussion will take place for all examiners to understand thoroughly the level scale and the procedures for scoring.’ All these things aim at assuring reliability of an achievement speaking test.

Second, Table 4.3 reveals that, during the students’ test performance, interaction hardly existed between the assessors and the test takers or students apart from 2 students out of 10. These two students were asked 1 or 2 questions. Moreover, the duration of these 10 students’ test performance varies 2 minutes on average. As discussed in 2.1- Chapter 2, spoken language has two functions, interactional and transactional, which are both necessarily incorporated into a speaking test. In fact, in most of the oral tests in use at TNU, namely the achievement test mentioned above, the students are expected to merely produce transactional instances of the language. Can such tests be considered to be able to measure test takers’ or students’ overall oral proficiency? The answer is surely no because they reveals no interactive communication. This also means that the assessors gave scores just on the students’ presentation, which also surely indicates a lack of validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Last but not least, as regards a supportive testing environment the oral tests were almost administered in noisy rooms. Students should be put at ease before and during their performance, which can increase their confidence. Bachman&Palmer (1996), hence, demonstrate that it is crucial to maintain a supportive environment throughout the test, that is to avoid distractions due to temperature, noise, excessive movement, etc. In order to do this, test administrators and assessors are to be in control of techniques and create an atmosphere which will help each student to feel at ease (Alderson, Clapham&Wall (1995, p.116). For those students waiting for their turn should be sitting in a comfortable room, not standing along the corridor and talking so as not to affect the others’ performance.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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