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Obviously, this popular kind of oral test at TNU is far from being useful in measuring the students’ overall language oral proficiency, and can be said to be lacking in construct validity and reliability (See 2.5, Chapter 2).

Secondly, no specifications of particular test task(s), especially specified components of oral ability to be tested, areas of language knowledge adequate and a marking key, to some extent, results in the teachers’ or test designers’ inadequate and useless tests. It can be said that there is lack of consideration of communicative stress in the oral test construction.

As can be seen in four achievement speaking tests (See Appendices 1&2), all the test questions/tasks – topics- are never accompanied with any external prompts helping the students make a structured presentation, and any explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability needed to perform the tasks.

It is extremely necessary for test writers to provide clear instructions helping test takers to organise a spoken presentation for test performance because students are always encouraged to produce effectively organised speech so that the listener finds it easy to catch up with what is being said (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.119).

Also, in order to write test tasks fitting students’ proficiency levels, test writers need really give explicit instructions quantifying language knowledge and ability. The quantification of performance on a particular task much depends on the grading of tasks according to cognitive difficulty (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.121). To put in another way, the same task type can be made easier or more difficult. For example, describing a room with 8 elements is apparently more difficult than a room with 5 elements. Inevitably, test designers or teachers of speaking skill should always bear in mind informed judgements of the degree of this cognitive difficulty or communicative stress (Figure 2.2, Chapter 2) during test operationalization process.

Besides, no official instructions on criteria for marking students’ test performance are presented; thus, the test writers/teachers are unaware of the importance of scoring method(s) for each test task, and they never design a marking key (See 2.4.3, Chapter 2) instructing assessors how to assess students’ performance on test tasks. As discussed in 2.4.3, in a marking key, language and skill categories are identified and awarded separate marks according to test purpose(s). As Underhill (1987, p.94) points out the aim of a marking key is ‘to save time and uncertainty by specifying in advance, as far as possible, how markers should approach the marking of each question or task’. With help of a marking key and a level scale mentioned above, assessors can mark a test more quickly and reliably, for each language or skill category is expected to be separately marked.

  • Test Administration Process

Table 4.1 and 4.3 indicate that TNU speaking test administration reveals many a shortcoming. These weak points include (1) lack of test administration standardisation, (2) lack of reliability in marking test takers’ test performance, and (3) lack of supportive testing environment.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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