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However, a product of this stage involving such four crucial things as students’ profile of language ability, construct/ability to be measured, sets of test tasks in the TLU domain and a plan for test quality evaluation, as described in 4.1.1, has never been produced and presented to the teachers as a principled basis or guidelines for the other two stages. This undoubtedly indicates that the first stage of oral test development at TNU is far from being consistent with the theoretical framework reviewed in 2.3.1 – Chapter 2. As a result, this big mismatch leads to the staff’s improper practices in the other two stages.

  • Test Operationalization Process

Apart from the mismatch between practice and theory at this institution mentioned above, a remarkably essential fact shown in Table 4.1 is that the Department and English Section have not provided any specific guidance, i.e. a blueprint, for speaking test construction process, namely (1) the number of test tasks to be included in a speaking test, and (2) specifications of each test task. These two factors are critically analysed respectively.

Firstly, as previously discussed, an achievement test of speaking skill is a means of eliciting students’ progress in overall speaking ability after a course of study, yet most of the achievement speaking tests in use at TNU can be asserted to fail to serve this purpose because they make use of merely one type of oral test or one test task – Tests where the learner prepares in advance (Tables 4.2) - combined with only one elicitation technique - Oral Report (Table 4.3). This is partially because no blueprint is presented. Underhill (1987) points out that an oral test rarely consists of only one elicitation technique but it is usual that it involves several techniques placed in a sequence. The reasons he provides for including more than one technique in an oral test are as follows

  1. It is more authentic to use a mix of techniques, with the learner doing different things with the language....
  2. An oral test that consists only of Question and Answer, for example, will naturally favour learners who are good at answering questions....
  3. To help improve the consistency of assessment, a change of tasks during a test can be used as an opportunity to swap interviewers and so combine multiple tasks with multiple assessment....
  4. A live test with several different parts is more flexible and can be adapted quickly to meet changing circumstances or different needs....

(Underhill, 1987, p.38)

Probably, such test tasks have been carefully discussed in class, and the students are expected to produce ‘well-prepared’ talk, even predictable questions can also be prepared in advance. Of course, ‘the task(s) on which the student has to perform may be generally familiar in form to the student, but the student cannot ‘prepare’ a written version of what he will say’ (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.120). He must prove to the assessors that in his test performance he has learned to use, not to repeat, what he has been taught. What we as examiners want to know when testing a students is not whether the students has learned what to have been taught, but whether he is able to produce an extended piece of spoken English appropriate to the communicative situation he encounters (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.120).

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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