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However, a product of this stage involving such four crucial things as students’ profile of language ability, construct/ability to be measured, sets of test tasks in the TLU domain and a plan for test quality evaluation, as described in 4.1.1, has never been produced and presented to the teachers as a principled basis or guidelines for the other two stages. This undoubtedly indicates that the first stage of oral test development at TNU is far from being consistent with the theoretical framework reviewed in 2.3.1 – Chapter 2. As a result, this big mismatch leads to the staff’s improper practices in the other two stages.

  • Test Operationalization Process

Apart from the mismatch between practice and theory at this institution mentioned above, a remarkably essential fact shown in Table 4.1 is that the Department and English Section have not provided any specific guidance, i.e. a blueprint, for speaking test construction process, namely (1) the number of test tasks to be included in a speaking test, and (2) specifications of each test task. These two factors are critically analysed respectively.

Firstly, as previously discussed, an achievement test of speaking skill is a means of eliciting students’ progress in overall speaking ability after a course of study, yet most of the achievement speaking tests in use at TNU can be asserted to fail to serve this purpose because they make use of merely one type of oral test or one test task – Tests where the learner prepares in advance (Tables 4.2) - combined with only one elicitation technique - Oral Report (Table 4.3). This is partially because no blueprint is presented. Underhill (1987) points out that an oral test rarely consists of only one elicitation technique but it is usual that it involves several techniques placed in a sequence. The reasons he provides for including more than one technique in an oral test are as follows

  1. It is more authentic to use a mix of techniques, with the learner doing different things with the language....
  2. An oral test that consists only of Question and Answer, for example, will naturally favour learners who are good at answering questions....
  3. To help improve the consistency of assessment, a change of tasks during a test can be used as an opportunity to swap interviewers and so combine multiple tasks with multiple assessment....
  4. A live test with several different parts is more flexible and can be adapted quickly to meet changing circumstances or different needs....

(Underhill, 1987, p.38)

Probably, such test tasks have been carefully discussed in class, and the students are expected to produce ‘well-prepared’ talk, even predictable questions can also be prepared in advance. Of course, ‘the task(s) on which the student has to perform may be generally familiar in form to the student, but the student cannot ‘prepare’ a written version of what he will say’ (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.120). He must prove to the assessors that in his test performance he has learned to use, not to repeat, what he has been taught. What we as examiners want to know when testing a students is not whether the students has learned what to have been taught, but whether he is able to produce an extended piece of spoken English appropriate to the communicative situation he encounters (Brown&Yule, 1983, p.120).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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