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4.1.2 the observation results

Table 4.2 displays oral test types used during the administration of the end-of-term speaking test for the second-year students (Term 2 – School Year 2002-2003 – Appendix 2). The information from this table is intended for evaluation of oral test types in use in the next sub-section 4.1.3

Students
Oral test types
Direct interview Pre-arranged information gap Tests where the learner prepares in advance Mechanical /entirely predictable tests
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Table 4.2: Summary of Oral Test Types Used in the Achievement Speaking Test for the Second-Year Students (School Year 2002-2003)

Table 4.2 indicates that only one test type was in use, yet as discussed in 2.4.2 (Chapter 2), a speaking test, namely an achievement one intended to measure overall oral proficiency, that can be believed to be valid should be a combination of various oral test types, at least two.

The following is Table 4.3 presenting elicitation technique(s) employed to elicit the 10 students’ ability during the achievement test mentioned above, their topic number or test question, duration of their test performance, their interaction with the assessors. All these details were recorded and transcribed in Appendix 3.

Students
Elicitation techniques involved in tests where the learner prepares in advance
Oral report Reading blank dialogue Retelling a story
Topic number Time(minutes) Interaction focus 1 8 5 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 2 2 4.5 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 3 1 5 Student’s presentation with 1 question raised by the assessor 4 8 3 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 5 6 3 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 6 2 2.5 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 7 3 3.5 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 8 5 2.5 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors 9 1 5 Student’s presentation with 2 questions raised by the assessor 10 4 3 Student’s presentation without any questions from the assessors

Table 4.3: Summary of the Students’ Oral Test Performance in the Achievement Speaking Test for the Second-Year Students

As can be seen in table 4.3, oral report, one of the three main elicitation techniques used to elicit test takers’ speaking ability through their performance on this kind of test – Tests where the learner prepares in advance (See 2.4.2.3, Chapter 2), was the only elicitation technique employed throughout this achievement test. Additionally, after most of the students finished their presentation, the assessors did not raise any questions except for students 3 and 9.

4.1.3 analysis of the results

The evaluation of TNU current oral testing practices is carried out in relation to four factors described in 4.1.1: (1) test design stage, (2) test operationalization stage, (3) test administration stage, and (4) use of test results.

  • Test Design Stage

As can be easily seen in Table 4.1, oral tests are explicitly identified as achievement ones from the very start. Obviously, clear identification of test type at the beginning of a course proves to be beneficial because the teachers can integrate the test content into the teaching program. As pointed out by Brown (1994), Heaton (1990), Hughes (1989) and Ur (1996), achievement tests should be integrated into the teaching program and related directly to the classroom lessons or units, the syllabus or curriculum. Therefore, information or indication of students’ performance on an achievement test reveals their achievement or progress at the end of a course of study (Bachman&Palmer, 1996), and an achievement test of speaking skill is of course a means of eliciting students’ progress in overall speaking ability after a course/term of study.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
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Daniel
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Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Collection. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11259/1.7
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